File Name: impacts of ozone on trees and crops felzer et al.zip
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- Salt Stress Reduced the Seedling Growth of Two Larch Species Under Elevated Ozone
- Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks
- Estimated crop yield losses due to surface ozone exposure and economic damage in India
- Economic impacts of ambient ozone pollution on wood production in Italy
Salt Stress Reduced the Seedling Growth of Two Larch Species Under Elevated Ozone
Many [ecosystem] services … are directly generated by protected park ecosystems … and provide significant benefits beyond park borders. These … contributions are little studied … but can be crucial sources of services required for human well-being. Download PDF of this article. Abstract: Protected areas such as national parks are recognized as important providers of ecosystem services, the benefits nature conveys to humans. Ground-level ozone O 3 is a human-made pollutant that at elevated levels can damage vegetation, resulting in decreased growth and increased water loss through evapotranspiration, which in turn results in decreased overall streamflow.
Forests and ozone: productivity, carbon storage, and feedbacks
In this study, we estimate yield losses and economic damage of two major crops winter wheat and rabi rice due to surface ozone O 3 exposure using hourly O 3 concentrations for the period — in India. Similarly, the mean CPL for rabi rice are from 0. Our calculated winter wheat and rabi rice losses agree well with previous results, providing the further evidence that large crop yield losses occurring in India due to current O 3 concentration and further elevated O 3 concentration in future may pose threat to food security. Surface ozone O 3 is a secondary air pollutant, despite its detrimental effects on human health, field experiments has demonstrated that the O 3 causes substantial damage to plant and agricultural crops Amann et al. Exposure of high O 3 concentration greater than 40 parts per billion by volume ppbv causes large yield losses of many agriculture crops Fuhrer and Ashmore Several field experiments studies in the USA, Europe, and Asia have demonstrated that the O 3 is responsible for more damage to vegetation and agricultural crops than any other air pollutant Mauzerall and Wang ; Mittal et al.
Energy use, agricultural practices, and demographics are entwined with the desire of people to improve their well-being and to manage economic growth and its effects through well-meaning but sometimes misdirected policies. The goal of this interdisciplinary research project is to evaluate fundamental interactions between human and terrestrial systems through agriculture and land use, both of which are impacted by forces that are global in nature and moderated by climate and atmospheric composition. The approach that will be used to model these interactions entails use of complex but separate models of human activity, the atmosphere and ocean, terrestrial systems, and sector-by-sector models of economic and human effects. The researchers plan to develop the dynamic linkages needed between a complex global model of the economy and a complex model of terrestrial systems to evaluate these costs and potential feedbacks of changes in atmospheric composition and climate. The proposed work is to link the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis EPPA model, and the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model TEM to dynamically simulate changes in crop productivity driven by environmental change and the economic consequences and changes in land use driven by changes in trade in agriculture and the price of agricultural goods. The work will take advantage of existing capabilities of the two models with some additional improvements needed to make the linkages between them. The project also will involve the development of a mosaic approach in the TEM to represent the regions and land uses represented in EPPA.
Projections of climate change impacts on global food supply are largely based on crop and pasture modelling. The consistency of these models with experimental data and their ability to simulate the effects of elevated CO 2 and of increased climate variability has been debated. The effects of high temperatures, of increased climate variability and of several limiting factors which interact with elevated CO 2 such as soil nutrients, pests and weeds are neither fully understood nor well implemented in leading models. Targeted model developments will be required based on experimental data concerning: i the role of extreme climatic events, ii the interactions between abiotic factors and elevated CO 2 , iii the genetic variability in plant CO 2 and temperature responses, iv the interactions with biotic factors, and v the effects on harvest quality. For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived. There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to extreme climatic events and to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts IPCC, a ; University of Copenhagen, Global climate change can be expected to threaten food supply, for example, through changing patterns of rainfall, increasing incidence of extreme weather, and the changing distribution of diseases and their vectors Tubiello et al.
Estimated crop yield losses due to surface ozone exposure and economic damage in India
The effect of elevated ozone eO 3 and soil salinization with alkaline salts in northeastern NE China is a serious concern affecting the success of the national replanting project. As planted areas exceed 4 million hectares in China, we must consider future afforestation efforts after thinning and harvesting. Here, we investigated eO 3 and salt stress on Dahurian larch Larix gmelinii var.
Tropospheric ozone is a serious air-pollutant, with large impacts on plant function. This study demonstrates that tropospheric ozone, although it damages plant metabolism, does not necessarily reduce ecosystem processes such as productivity or carbon sequestration because of diversity change and compensatory processes at the community scale ameliorate negative impacts at the individual level. This study assesses the impact of ozone on forest composition and ecosystem dynamics with an individual-based gap model that includes basic physiology as well as species-specific metabolic properties. Elevated tropospheric ozone leads to no reduction of forest productivity and carbon stock and to increased isoprene emissions, which result from enhanced dominance by isoprene-emitting species which tolerate ozone stress better than non-emitters. This study suggests that tropospheric ozone may not diminish forest carbon sequestration capacity.
Economic impacts of ambient ozone pollution on wood production in Italy
Ozone is an air pollutant that causes oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species ROS within the leaf. Ascorbate and glutathione are known to be key players in detoxification. Ozone effects on their biosynthesis and on amino acid metabolism were investigated in three Euramerican poplar genotypes Populus deltoides Bartr. In addition, ozone caused a remobilization of amino acids with a decreased pool of total amino acids and an increase of Cys and putrescine, especially in Carpaccio. In addition, the expression of genes encoding threonine aldolase was strongly induced only in the most tolerant genotype, Carpaccio.
В его голосе слышалось беспокойство. - Быть может, Хейл был прав, говоря, что система резервного питания подает недостаточное количество фреона. - А как же автоматическое отключение. Стратмор задумался.
PDF | This review presents tropospheric ozone (O 3), an air pollutant affecting agriculture by reducing BHATIA at al: IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON CROP GROWTH AND Agrawal et forest trees only reports no changes in potential microbial Felzer B S, Reilly J M, Melillo J, Kicklighter D W, Sarofim M.