File Name: committee on psychological tests and assessment american psychological association 2018 .zip
- Psychological Evaluation Example
- Psychology Research Ethics
- CPA Resources Relevant to Ethical Issues
- Psychological testing
Ethics are an important concern in the field of psychology, particularly as it relates to therapy and research.
PO Box 38Flinders Lane The charter is typically provided by psychologists to their clients,or displayed in psychologists' offices. Automatically reference everything correctly with CiteThisForMe. ACN
Psychological Evaluation Example
Much of the health service psychology and broader mental healthcare world has rallied in recent weeks to adapt clinical practice to the necessary physical distancing constraints of the COVID crisis. The bulk of clinical services, largely based on verbal interaction between the client and service provider, has moved to a distributed and distance service delivery model, largely relying on online teleconferencing technology to continue face-to-face contact with consumers clients, parents, schools, etc.
However, the situation is more challenging with assessment services that have standardized administration procedures that require in-person contact. Most current and emerging telehealth guidelines largely focus on psychotherapy and, as such, tele-assessment guidance is necessary.
In response to the need for physical distancing and isolation requirements, test publishers have started to modify their service delivery options, such as the ability to use remote testing options for example, emailing a link to the testing interface to the respondent or presenting stimuli over their remote testing platforms. However, multiple types of assessment, including cognitive, neuropsychological and autism assessment, are disproportionately burdened by the current physical distancing, limited contact, and stay-at-home constraints.
These assessment methods have historically relied on tasks and interpersonal procedures that require in-person interaction, such as the manipulation of physical materials, standardized interactions between assessor and client, and clinical observation of the person in a physical environment.
These principles are an effort to offer help to those providing psychological assessment service under physical distancing constraints. They are not meant to supplant typical practices and guidelines under normal circumstances. That is, when it becomes safe and feasible to resume in-person services, these recommendations should not override typical and standardized practice. However, they are meant to allow for at least some continuity of the care and needed services provided during this unprecedented time.
The overarching context within which these principles are being developed is an understanding that the research and evidence base for equivalence of cognitive, neuropsychological, and other interactional measures in a remote, online format compared to a traditional, face-to-face format is extremely nascent. Some early evidence, under very controlled circumstances, of possible equivalence exists e. Replications of studies are needed, and evidence needs to be amassed. Therefore, the following principles are aimed at continuing care while understanding that equivalence between in-person testing and tele-testing is not guaranteed.
That means that validity of the data should be overtly addressed in the report. The principles here are not necessarily shared by all organizations. Further, no recommendation provided here should be followed if it contradicts federal, state, or local laws overseeing the practice of psychologists providing assessment services.
Finally, these principles should be considered all together. That is, no one principle is meant to allow psychologists the ability to alter test administration, if the other principles are not considered as well. The purpose of these principles is to allow for the best possible practice within the current physical distancing constraints; as such, some standardized administration methods will need to be altered. Altering these administration procedures should be done carefully, thoughtfully, and deliberately, with special attention paid to how the alterations themselves may alter the data.
Psychologists, fully trained in the standardized administration procedures of all tests they are planning to give, also need to practice the altered procedures with individuals other than their clients before attempting actual assessments. While there may be some workarounds with respect to modifying test materials and procedures to achieve physical distancing, these modifications should not jeopardize test security.
Sending stimulus materials e. Developing approved methods to present stimuli on a computer screen may be possible, as it is more protective of test security. Remote audio-visual monitoring of the test administration, even with self-administered instruments, is essential. Failure to do so increases the risk of violations of test security; further, it is essential to know that the designated client is actually the one completing the test.
Make sure you know, thoroughly, how to use the technology available to you. You must ensure that connections are secure on both sides, that your Wi-Fi is trustworthy, that you know the different functions of whatever platform you are using, and think through how it can be used to approximate traditional, standardized administration as closely as possible.
Psychologists must be mindful of duration of sessions. Do your best to keep the administration procedures as close as possible to the traditional, in-person procedures. For example, one must build rapport with the client before conducting the testing. The main interactive component of self-report questionnaires is typically the initial instructions given to the client, and the test is taken individually in a quiet room. However, when administering self-report questionnaires remotely, one must ensure that the client themselves is actually the person taking the test and that they are in a room fairly free of distractions.
As noted above, audio-visual monitoring of the remote assessment session is essential. This can allow a client to complete forms from their computer as if they were sitting at your own computer or laptop. To date, research and evidence for equivalence of testing in a remote, online format compared to a traditional, face-to-face format is limited. You should use your knowledge of processes that underlie performance on tasks and how those processes are likely to be affected by the alternate administration format to think through the quality of the data collected.
For example, some purely verbal tasks may suffer very little alteration in the quality of data collected, as they rely primarily on hearing and speaking, whereas many nonverbal tasks are likely to suffer more greatly in this format.
You should think through every task administered and decide just how much the quality of the data are likely affected by the alternate administration format. The quality of the images blurriness, shadows, etc.
When considering data quality, it is important to consider just how detrimental to validity the alterations are likely to be. Additionally, it is important to decide whether it is better to proceed with modified assessment procedures in the specific situation, to use alternative measures that are available to use in a remote format, or to wait until in-person services are again feasible.
There will certainly be tasks that are not possible to replicate in a telehealth format at this time. Consider, for example, Block Design from the Wechsler tests. This is also true for other tasks with manipulatives. However, you can consider tasks that tap similar constructs in similar ways. Wechsler tests, for example, have subtests that load onto the broader Visual-Spatial or Perceptual Reasoning Indices that do not require the use of blocks.
Additionally, adding a different visual-motor integration task to the battery may bolster the information gained when a core subtest cannot be utilized. That is, the individual variation amongst subtests may be useful and informative, but the overall score is generally the most clinically reliable point of data.
That means that slight data problems with consideration of Principle 5 may not be as important, meaningful, or disruptive, as they are only partially contributing to the larger, overall score. Ultimately, psychological assessment requires the clinical judgment of psychologists interpreting test scores, including their margin for error, within the context of individual and contextual factors, including presenting problems, diversity considerations and other information.
No single test score should ever make a clinical decision for us, even under the most optimal conditions. Psychologists will continue to integrate test data within an understanding of the individual, their background, their context, their culture and their circumstances in order to inform conclusions and clinical decisions.
Integrating test data derived from nonstandardized administration procedures broadens the margin of error. It is important to be deliberate and explicit about the broader confidence intervals and potential for errors in the administration process, interpretation and in the write-up of results. Related to confidence intervals, it is important to remember that cognitive and other psychological test data are proxies for underlying abilities, traits, states and functioning.
This is a primary reason it is important to use a multi-method approach, combined with clinical expertise Bornstein, Remember that these test scores and data are not perfect, and at best they have error and are approximations of constructs we are trying to understand about an individual. Therefore, with all the above caveats, use test results collected via telehealth as individual data in a larger picture. These ethical principles remain intact during this crisis period.
This includes ensuring that the process of informed consent is thorough, clear, and ongoing. Potential difficulties can arise when conducting psychological assessment remotely via telehealth and should be discussed explicitly. Consumers should know the limitations ahead of time, whenever possible.
Additionally, as tele-psychological assessment is an area in which the overwhelming majority of psychologists are not familiar, it is important to seek out consultation, if at all possible. While it may not be possible to consult with an expert in this specific area, you should discuss implications with knowledgeable colleagues.
Further, issues of inequity, disparities, and diversity need to be attended to throughout the process. For example, when a task requires the client to use a computer, you need to think carefully about the implications of those from disadvantaged or traditionally marginalized backgrounds who may have less experience with computers, in addition to how that may affect performance e.
Although not yet studied, it is highly possible that problematic, systematic differences between groups on certain tests may be amplified in this telehealth format. Finally, it is important to note in psychological assessment reports and feedback when assessment procedures have been altered and how these alterations may have or likely impacted the data.
It is important to be transparent about the novel circumstances under which the assessment was conducted, as well as the considerations that went into how data are interpreted, with consideration to alterations, and integrated with other information. Much of the psychological assessment work conducted by psychologists is timely, necessary and high-stakes.
During this crisis period with physical distancing and stay-at-home orders, it may be best for many psychologists simply to pause their psychological assessment work. However, because of the uncertainty about how long this will continue and the fact that many individuals simply need assessments conducted despite the constrictions of the current circumstances , these guidelines are meant to help psychologists continue their important work in the most ethical, clinically responsible way possible.
Whenever possible, administration procedures should mimic or at least approximate the standardized protocols presented in test manuals. However, when this is not possible, psychologists should take steps to collect data that are as high quality as possible and use caution and clinical expertise when interpreting those data and integrating them with other information to make conclusions and inform clinical decisions.
The difference between accommodation and modification of tests should be understood, considered, and, if applicable, reported. Consult the technical manual of tests used for further information. The information provided herein is considered temporary for use during the COVID crisis with an unknown expiration date.
This guidance does not indicate that these services will be reimbursed. Psychologists should check with payers to confirm billing, coding and reimbursement policies. American Psychological Association Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Bornstein, R. Evidence-based psychological assessment.
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Psychology Research Ethics
By Saul McLeod , updated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants. This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct.
Canadian Psychological Association. Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice. Canadian Psychological Assocation. Practice Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services. Guidelines for Ethical Psychological Practice with Women.
Ethics are an important concern in the field of psychology, particularly as it relates to therapy and research. Working with patients and conducting psychological research can pose a wide variety of ethical and moral issues that need to be addressed. The APA ethics code provides guidance for professionals working in the field of psychology so that they're better equipped with the knowledge of what to do when they encounter some type of moral or ethical dilemma. Some of these are principles or values that psychologists should aspire to uphold. In other cases, the APA outlines standards that are enforceable expectations. The APA first published their ethics code in and has been continuously evolving the code ever since. The current version of the ethics code, which introduced the distinction between principles and standards, was developed in and later amended in and
Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment, the Committee for the Advancement for Health Service Psychology (APA, Commission on Accreditation, ). Assessment is identified as a pro- fession-wide competency in these and.
CPA Resources Relevant to Ethical Issues
The Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code. The Preamble and General Principles are aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology. Although the Preamble and General Principles are not themselves enforceable rules, they should be considered by psychologists in arriving at an ethical course of action and may be considered by ethics bodies in interpreting the Ethical Standards. The Ethical Standards set forth enforceable rules for conduct as psychologists. Most of the Ethical Standards are written broadly, in order to apply to psychologists in varied roles, although the application of an Ethical Standard may vary depending on the context.
Much of the health service psychology and broader mental healthcare world has rallied in recent weeks to adapt clinical practice to the necessary physical distancing constraints of the COVID crisis.
The Inter Organizational Practice Committee IOPC convened a workgroup to develop guidance on models to provide neuropsychological NP care during the COVID pandemic while minimizing risks of novel coronavirus transmission as lockdown orders are lifted and ambulatory clinical services resume. A collaborative panel of experts from major professional organizations developed provisional guidance for models of neuropsychological practice during the pandemic. This guidance reviews the risks and benefits of conducting NP exams in several ways, including standard in-person, mitigated in-person, in-clinic teleneuropsychology TeleNP , and in-home TeleNP. Strategies are provided for selecting the most appropriate model for a given patient, taking into account four levels of patient risk stratification, level of community risk, and the concept of stepped models of care. Links are provided to governmental agency and professional organization resources as well as an outline and discussion of essential infection mitigation processes based on commonalities across recommendations from diverse federal, state, local, and professional organization recommendations. This document provides recommendations and guidance with analysis of the risks relative to the benefits of various models of NP care during the COVID pandemic. Clinical neuropsychologists globally are trying to determine how to provide neuropsychological NP services while minimizing risks of the COVID illness and novel coronavirus transmission as lockdown orders are lifted and ambulatory clinical services resume in many settings.
All rights reserved. The initial interpretation in terview is particularly crucial to all fur ther treatment and habilitation attempts, and in this regard the "primary physician" is probably the most important individual the family will meet. Guidelines for counseling the parents of the retarded are outlined. Furthermore, this article extends the current thinking on ethical issues regarding older adults by addressing their vulnerabilities.
His expectations for treatment are that Jill will not try to kill herself, will become more. This may help recognize psychological problems that could potentially interfere with the person's ability to perform his duties. There are many danger assessment tools available for research, but clinicians need a quick manageable tool. The purpose is to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, a range of mental functions and behaviors at a specific point in time. Browse our extensive offering of assessment, monitoring, and evaluation tools for clinicians and mental health professionals. Staff use Title IV-B funds to cover psychological evaluation for family members and foster and adoptive parents.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests. Scores are thought to reflect individual or group differences in the construct the test purports to measure. According to Anastasi and Urbina, psychological tests involve observations made on a "carefully chosen sample [emphasis authors] of an individual's behavior. Psychological tests can include a series of tasks or problems that the respondent has to solve. Psychological tests can include questionnaires and interviews , which are also designed to measure unobserved constructs.
The field of Clinical Psychology involves research, teaching and services relevant to the applications of principles, methods, and procedures for understanding, predicting, and alleviating intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social and behavioral maladjustment, disability and discomfort, applied to a wide range of client populations. In theory, training, and practice, Clinical Psychology strives to recognize the importance of diversity and strives to understand the roles of gender, culture, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and other dimensions of diversity. The mission of the Society of Clinical Psychology is to represent the field of Clinical Psychology through encouragement and support of the integration of clinical psychological science and practice in education, research, application, advocacy and public policy, attending to the importance of diversity. Like you, we are deeply troubled and saddened not only by the events of the past weeks, but in addition by the generations of unequal treatment and healthcare inequities experienced by people of minority status. As an organization whose mission is to promote mental health and human welfare, we want you to know that the Society of Clinical Psychology, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association, stands against racism and is in harmony with BlackLivesMatter.
A PDF version of this document is available here. Guidelines for education and training in industrial-organizational psychology. Bowling Green, OH: Author.
The American Psychological Association APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct for short, the Ethics Code , as referred to by the APA includes an introduction, preamble, a list of five aspirational principles and a list of ten enforceable standards that psychologists use to guide ethical decisions in practice, research, and education. The principles and standards are written, revised, and enforced by the APA. The code of conduct is applicable to psychologists in a variety of areas across a variety of contexts.
The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is a document that articulates a set of professional standards for the development and use of educational and psychological tests. These guidelines are intended to inform all aspects of testing and to provide a basis for evaluating the quality of tests. The Standards covers a wide range of issues related to all aspects of the testing process, including foundational concepts such as validity and fairness, details of test development and implementation, and applications in specific areas such as employment credentialing and educational accountability. The Standards is a joint publication of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education and has been approved or endorsed by each of these organizations.
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