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- Geert Hofstede
- Geert Hofstede: Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind
- Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition
The best-selling book, Cultures and Organizations, has been translated many times and counting. Since an abbreviated version of the third edition is being translated into several languages.
Geert Hofstede: Cultures and Organizations. This book is one of the most widely used books about cultural differences by the community of international firm managers. It explains the differences in thinking of people of differences nationalities across the globe on the very simple four dimensional scale.
Gert Hofstede. Lupin Luu. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. PrefaceIn the late s I accidentally became interested in cultural differencesand gained access to rich data for studying them. This study resulted in the publication in of a book on the subject, Culture's Consequences.
It was written for a scholarly public; it had to be, because it cast doubts on the universal validity of established theories in psychology, organization sociology, and management theory: so I had to show the theoretical reasoning, base data, and statistical treatments used to reach the conclusions.
A paperback edition of the book left out the base data and the statistics but was otherwise identical to the hardcover version. Culture's Consequences appeared at a time when interest in cultural differences, both between nations and between organizations, was rapidly rising, and there was a dearth of empirically supported information on the subject. As far as differences among nations were concerned the earlier book certainly provided such information, but maybe too much of it at once.
Many readers evidently only read parts of the message. For example, I lost count of the number of people who cited the book claiming that I studied the values of IBM or 'Hermes' managers. The data I used were from IBM employees and that, as the book itself showed, makes quite a difference. The theme of cultural differences is, of course, not only and even not primarily of interest to social scientists or international business students.
It concerns anyone who meets people from outside his or her own narrow circle, and in the modern world that is virtually everybody. I composed the manuscript on a personal. I think of them all with love and gratitude. The world we are now passing on to their is full of clashes between differently programmed minds.
Liesil Hicgje will not like the book now because it has no nice pictures. I t V -iboul that; but I hope it will contribute a little bit to mutual I. Hiding across cultures in tomorrow's world which is theirs. Part I lays the foundation for a good understanding of the remainder of the book by explaining what we mean when we talk about 'culture', and by providing a small vocabulary of essential terms to be used in the following parts.
Part II, by far the largest part, consists of Chapters 2 through 7 and deals with differences among cultures at national level. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the four dimensions empirically found in research across more than 50 countries: to wit power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance.
Each of these chapters is composed in the same way: the dimension is described, the scores of the various countries are shown, and the consequences of the dimension for family life, school, workplace, organization, state, and the development of ideas are discussed.
Speculatively, something is said about the origins and the possible future of differences along each dimension. Differences according to gender, generation, and social class are brought in wherever they are relevant. Chapter 6 looks at the consequences of national culture differences in the way people in a country organize themselves, combining the dimensions described in the four previous chapters.
It shows that organizational practices and theories are culturally dependent. Chapter 7 brings in the fifth cross-national dimension: long-term versus short-term orientation. It also explores the implications of the fact that this dimension could only be detected with a questionnaire designed by the Chinese; it reveals deep differences between Eastern and Western thinking related to the importance of 'virtue' versus 'truth'.
Part III deals with organizational culture differences, and consists of one single chapter: Chapter 8. It describes the new insights collected in IRIC's research project across 20 organizational units in Denmark and the Netherlands conducted in the period These are complementary to the national culture differences illustrated in the earlier chapters. Part IV deals with the practical implications of the culture differences and similarities described so far. Chapter 9 looks at what happens when people from different cultures meet.
It treats phenomena such as culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and in humor. It discusses how intercultural communication skills can be developed.
Chapter 10 summarizes the message of the book and translates it into suggestions for parents, managers, and the media. It also speculates about political developments in the coming years, on the basis of cultural processes. Practitioners can stop reading the book here. A final section entitled Reading Mental Programs is mainly addressed at research colleagues and is added as an appendix. It deals with how to collect reliable information about cultural differences.
It also refers to controversies within the social sciences around the subject of culture, and explains the methodological choices behind the approach followed. Twelve Angry Men is an American theatre piece which became a famous motion picture, starring Henry Fonda. The play was written in The scene consists of the jury room of a New York court of law. Twelve jury members who have never met before have to decide unanimously on the guilt or innocence of a boy from a slum area, accused of murder.
The quote above is from the second and final act when emotions have reached boiling point. It is a confrontation between the tenth juror, a garage owner, and the eleventh juror, a European-born, probably Austrian, watchmaker. The tenth juror is irritated by what he sees as the excessively polite manners of the other man. But the watchmaker cannot behave otherwise. After many years in his new home country, he still behaves the way he was raised.
He carries within himself an indelible pattern of behavior. Introduction Levels of culture Different minds but common problemsThe world is full of confrontations between people, groups, and nations who think, feel, and act differently.
At the same time these people, groups, and nations, just like our twelve angry men are exposed to common problems which demand cooperation for their solution. Ecological, economical, military, hygienic, and meteorological developments do not stop at national or regional borders. Coping with the threats of nuclear warfare, acid rain, ocean pollution, extinction of animals, AIDS, or a worldwide recession demands cooperation of opinion leaders from many countries.
They in their turn need the support of broad groups of followers in order to implement the decisions taken. Understanding the differences in the ways these leaders and their followers think, feel, and act is a condition for bringing about worldwide solutions that work.
Questions of economic, technological, medical, or biological cooperation have too often been considered as merely technical. One of the reasons why so many solutions do not work or cannot be implemented is because differences in thinking among the partners have been ignored.
Understanding such differences is at least as essential as understanding the technical factors. The objective of this book is to help in dealing with the differences in thinking, feeling, and acting of people around the globe.
It will show that although the variety in people's minds is enormous, there is a structure in this variety which can serve as a basis for mutual understanding. Culture as mental programmingEvery person carries within him or herself patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting which were learned throughout their lifetime. Much of it has been acquired in early childhood, because at that time a person is most susceptible to learning and assimilating.
As soon as certain patterns of thinking, feeling and acting have established themselves within a person's mind, s he must unlearn these before being able to learn something different, and unlearning is more difficult than learning for the first time.
Using the analogy of the way in which computers are programmed, this book will call such patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting mental programs, or, as the sub-title goes: 'software of the mind'. This does not mean, of course, that people are programmed the way computers are. A person's behavior is only partially predetermined by her or his mental programs: s he has a basic ability to deviate from them, and to react in ways which are new, creative, destructive, or unexpected.
The 'software of the mind' this book is about only indicates what reactions are likely and understandable, given one's past.
The sources of one's mental programs lie within the social environments in which one grew up and collected one's life experiences. The programming starts within the family; it continues within the neighborhood, at school, in youth groups, at the work place, and in the living community.
The European watchmaker from the quote at the beginning of this chapter came from a country and a social class in which polite behavior is still at a premium today. Most people from that environment would have reacted as he did. The American garage owner, who worked himself up from the slums, acquired quite different mental programs.
Mental programs vary as much as the social environments in which they were acquired. A customary term for such mental software is culture. In most Western languages 'culture' commonly means 'civilization' or 'refinement of the mind' and in particular the results of such refinement, like education, art, and literature.
This is 'culture in the narrow sense'; I sometimes call it 'culture one'. Culture as mental software, however, corresponds to a much broader use of the word which is common among social anthropologists: this is 'culture two', and it is the concept which will be used throughout this book. Social or cultural anthropology is the science of human societies, in particular although not only traditional or 'primitive' ones. In social anthropology, 'culture' is a catchword for all those patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting referred to in the previous paragraphs.
Not only those activities supposed to refine the mind are included in 'culture two', but also the ordinary and menial things in life: greeting, eating, showing or not showing feelings, keeping a certain physical distance from others, making love, or maintaining body hygiene.
Politicians and journalists sometimes confuse culture two and culture one without being aware of it: the adaptation problems of immigrants to their new host country are discussed in terms of promoting folk dance groups.
But culture two deals with much more fundamental human processes than culture one; it deals with the things that hurt. Culture two is always a collective phenomenon, because it is at least partly shared with people who live or lived within the same social environment, which is where it was learned. It is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category 1 of people from another?
Culture is learned, not inherited. It derives from one's social environment, not from one's genes. Culture should be distinguished from human nature on one side, and from an individual's personality on the other see Fig.
Geert Hofstede: Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind
Geert Hofstede , a widely known Dutch researcher of culture, has defined culture as "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. During , he conducted detailed interviews with hundreds of IBM employees in 53 countries. Through standard statistical analysis of large data sets, he determined patterns of similarities and differences among the replies. From this data analysis, he developed five dimensions of culture. In the s, Hofstede published results of his research in publication Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind.
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition
Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies on national values, introducing the dimension paradigm. His most popular book, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, has been translated into twenty languages. The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others. As the title suggests, this book was entirely devoted to the study of culture at the national level, in which values played a major role.
Gerard Hendrik Geert Hofstede 2 October — 12 February was a Dutch social psychologist , IBM employee, and Professor Emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University in the Netherlands,  well known for his pioneering research on cross-cultural groups and organizations. He is best known for developing one of the earliest and most popular frameworks for measuring cultural dimensions in a global perspective. After working in the industry for ten years, Hofstede entered part-time doctoral study at Groningen University in The Netherlands, and received his PhD in social psychology cum laude in Upon his graduation from Delft in , Hofstede joined the Dutch military, working as a technical officer in the Dutch army for two years.
Hofstede, G. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind : intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. Hofstede, Geert, , Gert Jan. Hofstede and Michael.
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Киллер щелкнул миниатюрным тумблером, и очки превратились в дисплей. Опустив руки, он незаметными быстрыми движениями соединял кончики пальцев. Перед его глазами появилось сообщение, которое он должен был отправить. ТЕМА СООБЩЕНИЯ: П. КЛУШАР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Он улыбнулся. Часть задания заключалась в немедленном уведомлении.
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Выходит, все в порядке. - Это лишь означает, - сказала она, пожимая плечами, - что сегодня мы не взломали ни одного шифра. ТРАНСТЕКСТ устроил себе перерыв. - Перерыв? - Бринкерхофф не был в этом уверен.
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О… Боже ты .