# Breadth First Search And Depth First Search Algorithm Pdf

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*In this tutorial, you will learn about breadth first search algorithm. Traversal means visiting all the nodes of a graph.*

## Breadth-First Search Algorithm [BFS] with Example

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Graph nodes are labelled from 1 to n, and m edges connect pairs of nodes. These edges can either be unidirectional or bidirectional. Graph algorithms have formulated and solved a lot of problems such as shortest path, network flow problems, graph colouring problems, and much more. Some particular popular types of graphs are:. The graph is traversed using two popular traversal algorithms Depth-first search and the Breadth-first search algorithm.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs and how to get involved. Subjects: Data Structures and Algorithms cs. DS Cite as: arXiv DS] for this version.

## Breadth First Search

Artificial Intelligence is the study of building agents that act rationally. Most of the time, these agents perform some kind of search algorithm in the background in order to achieve their tasks. There are far too many powerful search algorithms out there to fit in a single article. Instead, this article will discuss six of the fundamental search algorithms, divided into two categories, as shown below. Note that there is much more to search algorithms that the chart I have provided above. However, this article will mostly stick to the above chart, exploring the algorithms given there.

Breadth-first search BFS is an algorithm that is used to graph data or searching tree or traversing structures. The full form of BFS is the Breadth-first search. The algorithm efficiently visits and marks all the key nodes in a graph in an accurate breadthwise fashion. This algorithm selects a single node initial or source point in a graph and then visits all the nodes adjacent to the selected node. Remember, BFS accesses these nodes one by one. Once the algorithm visits and marks the starting node, then it moves towards the nearest unvisited nodes and analyses them. Once visited, all nodes are marked.

Depth-first search DFS is an algorithm for traversing or searching tree or graph data structures. The algorithm starts at the root node selecting some arbitrary node as the root node in the case of a graph and explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking. The time and space analysis of DFS differs according to its application area. Thus, in this setting, the time and space bounds are the same as for breadth-first search and the choice of which of these two algorithms to use depends less on their complexity and more on the different properties of the vertex orderings the two algorithms produce. For applications of DFS in relation to specific domains, such as searching for solutions in artificial intelligence or web-crawling, the graph to be traversed is often either too large to visit in its entirety or infinite DFS may suffer from non-termination. In such cases, search is only performed to a limited depth ; due to limited resources, such as memory or disk space, one typically does not use data structures to keep track of the set of all previously visited vertices.

PDF | The depth-first search is an organized graph traversal that recursively SEARCH The breadth-first search is a graph traversal algorithm.

## Depth-first search

Adrian Sampson shows how to develop depth-first search dfs and breadth-first search bfs. Both algorithms are used to traverse a graph, "visiting" each of its nodes in an orderly fashion. He assumes you are familiar with the idea. He also figures out the time complexity of these algorithms.

*After a DFS traversal of any graph G, all its edges can be put in one of the following 4 classes-.*