Distinguish Between Confined And Unconfined Aquifer Pdf

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Aquifers in geological terms are referred to as bodies of saturated rocks or geological formations through which volumes of water find their way permeability into wells and springs. Classification of these is a function of water table location within the subsurface, its structure and hydraulic conductivities into two namely; Confined Aquifers and Unconfined Aquifers and then characterized these aquifers. Aquifer Characterization is dependent on the petro-physical properties porosity, permeability, seismic velocities etc.

What is the difference between a confined and an unconfined (water-table) aquifer?

Topics Search. Contact us. Confined Aquifers Confined aquifers are permeable rock units that are usually deeper under the ground than unconfined aquifers. They are overlain by relatively impermeable rock or clay that limits groundwater movement into, or out of, the confined aquifer. Groundwater in a confined aquifer is under pressure and will rise up inside a borehole drilled into the aquifer.

The level to which the water rises is called the potentiometric surface. An artesian flow is where water flows out of the borehole under natural pressure. Confined aquifers may be replenished, or recharged by rain or streamwater infilitrating the rock at some considerable distance away from the confined aquifer. Groundwater in these aquifers can sometimes be thousands of years old.

Unconfined Aquifers Where groundwater is in direct contact with the atmosphere through the open pore spaces of the overlying soil or rock, then the aquifer is said to be unconfined.

The upper groundwater surface in an unconfined aquifer is called the water table. The depth to the water table varies according to factors such as the topography, geology, season and tidal effects, and the quantities of water being pumped from the aquifer.

Unconfined aquifers are usually recharged by rain or streamwater infiltrating directly through the overlying soil.

Typical examples of unconfined aquifers include many areas of coastal sands and alluvial deposits in river valleys.

Aquifer, Classification and Characterization

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response of confined and unconfined aquifers to pumping (before the ground-​water the storage coefficient S for confined and unconfined aquifers, and a high rate of The large differences in drawdowns and related volumes of the cone.

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An aquifer is a geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a formation which contains sufficient saturated, permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. There are generally two kinds of aquifers: confined and unconfined. Unconfined aquifer An unconfined aquifer, also called a water-table aquifer, is an aquifer which has the water table as its upper boundary. Unconfined aquifers occur near the ground surface. The aquifer in the Yuma area is an unconfined aquifer, composed primarily of sand, gravel, clay and silt sediments deposited by the Colorado and Gila rivers.

Aquifers are geological formations that can store, transmit and yield water to a well or spring. Texas aquifers are remarkably diverse in geologic structure, the amount of water they store, the amount of the water taken from them that can be replenished and the rate at which water moves through the aquifer. There are two basic types of aquifers: confined and unconfined.


Aquifers are bodies of water located underground. They may be enclosed within surrounding rock, which is called a confined aquifer, or exist within a layer of water-saturated gravel or sand, which is called an unconfined aquifer.

Lower Colorado Region

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Differences Between a Confined Aquifer & an Unconfined Aquifer