File Name: economic and social environment .zip
- Summary Report on the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of the Bioeconomy
- A brief review of socio-economic and environmental impact of Covid-19
- Social Economics
- Social, Economic and Environmental Impact Tool (SEE-IT)
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he previous chapters of this report focused on health systems and individual and household-level risks that might explain the U.
Summary Report on the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of the Bioeconomy
COVID has heightened human suffering, undermined the economy, turned the lives of billions of people around the globe upside down, and significantly affected the health, economic, environmental and social domains.
This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID outbreak on the ecological domain, the energy sector, society and the economy and investigate the global preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of COVID This analysis unpacks the key responses to COVID, the efficacy of current initiatives, and summarises the lessons learnt as an update on the information available to authorities, business and industry.
This review found that a hour delay in the collection and disposal of waste from infected households and quarantine facilities is crucial to controlling the spread of the virus. Broad sector by sector plans for socio-economic growth as well as a robust entrepreneurship-friendly economy is needed for the business to be sustainable at the peak of the pandemic. The socio-economic crisis has reshaped investment in energy and affected the energy sector significantly with most investment activity facing disruption due to mobility restrictions.
Delays in energy projects are expected to create uncertainty in the years ahead. This report will benefit governments, leaders, energy firms and customers in addressing a pandemic-like situation in the future. Most countries are currently trying to combat the virus spread by screening for COVID in large numbers and maintaining social distancing policies with an emphasis on the health of human beings.
The alveoli are porous cup-formed small cavities located in the structure of the lungs where the gas exchange of the breathing process take place. The most common cells on the alveoli are the type II cells. Also, most of the industries were shutdown to lower mobility. A fall in the volume of business activity and international events and an increase in online measures could have a long-term impact.
Air activity in China recovered slightly from a low in late February, with lockdown measures somewhat eased. Labour displacement, business closures and stock crashes are just some of the impacts of this global lockdown during the pandemic.
COVID has a detrimental impact on economic growth due to two primary factors. In the beginning, the exponential growth of the global epidemic directly contributed to considerable confusion about instability in the financial and capital markets. Secondly, countries have strictly regulated human movement and transport to monitor the growth of the epidemic and significantly reduced economic activity, putting pressure on both consumer and productive economic activity.
Since the s, the link between economic growth and pollution has been an important global concern. The assessment of energy and financial efficiency is usually connected to environmental pollution research. The strict control over movement and business activity due to COVID has led to an economic downturn, which is in turn, expected to reduce environmental pollution.
This paper systematically assesses how the novel coronavirus has had a global effect on society, the energy sector and the environment. This study presents data compiled from the literature, news sources and reports from February to July on the management steps implemented across the globe to control and reduce the impact of COVID The study will offer guidelines for nations to assess the overall impact of COVID in their countries.
The home isolation and pop-up confinement services in countries that have experienced major impacts of COVID are standard practise, as hospitals are given priority to the most serious cases. In some countries, hotels are being used to isolate travellers for at least two weeks on entry. In several countries, such quarantine measures have resulted in consumers increasing their domestic online shopping activity that has increased domestic waste. In addition, food bought online is packaged, so inorganic waste has also increased.
Medical waste has also increased. This unusual situation poses new and major obstacles in the implementation of waste collection services, thus creating a new challenge for waste collection and recycling groups. With the global adaptation to exponential behavioural and social shifts in the face of COVID challenges, municipal services such as waste collection and management need to alter their operations to play an important role in reducing the spread of infectious diseases.
ACE2 is a cell membrane-associated enzyme in the lungs, heart and kidneys. Evidence from SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses show that they remain effective for up to a few days in the atmosphere and on a variety of surfaces Fig. During the early stages of this epidemic, updated waste disposal methods to tackle COVID were not implemented on the broader community. The concept of clinical waste essentially also applies to waste from contaminated homes and quarantine facilities.
Throughout this pandemic, huge volumes of domestic and hospital waste, particularly plastic waste, has been generated. This has already impeded current efforts to reduce plastic waste and decrease its disposal in the environment. More effort should be made to find alternatives to heavily used plastics. COVID has already had significant effects on waste recycling. Initially, as the outbreak spread and lockdowns were implemented in several countries, both public authorities and municipal waste management officials had to adjust to the situation quickly.
Recycling projects in various cities have been put on hold due to the pandemic, with officials worried about the possibility of COVID spreading to recycling centres. Waste management has been limited in affected European countries. For example, Italy prohibited the sorting of waste by infected citizens. Extensive waste management during the pandemic is incredibly difficult because of the scattered nature of the cases and the individuals affected.
The value of implementing best management practises for waste handling and hygiene to minimise employee exposure to potentially hazardous waste, should be highlighted at this time.
Moreover, the collected waste should be immediately transported to waste incinerators or sites without segregation. Instead, the sharp decline in economic activity in response to the current crisis will most probably lead to a modest drop in global greenhouse emissions. The European Space Agency ESA , with its head office in Paris, France, is an intergovernmental body made up of 22 European countries committed to exploring the international space.
In addition to the compound contents measurement, the Copernicus Sentinel-5P troposphere monitor TROPOMI and other specified precision equipment measure ozone content, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Other NO 2 sources include petroleum and metal refining, coal-fired electricity, other manufacturing and food processing industries.
Due to pollution variations as well as changes in weather conditions, the levels of the NO 2 in our atmosphere differ widely every day. Anthropogenic pollution is estimated to contain around 53 million tonnes of NO 2 annually.
For this reason, the amount of NO 2 in the atmosphere is used as a precise measure for determining whether the COVID outbreak affects environmental pollution. NO 2 inflames the lung linings and can decrease lung infection immunity. High levels of NO 2 in the air we breathe can corrode our body's lung tissues. Brief exposure to high concentrations of NO 2 can lead to respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, bronchitis, flu, etc. Asthmatic children and older individuals with cardiac illness are most vulnerable in this regard.
However, its main drawback is that it produces two of the most harmful air pollutants, ozone and airborne particles.
Ozone gas affects our lungs and the crops we eat. The average day animation of NO 2 emissions throughout Europe from 1 st January to 11 th March , demonstrated the environmental impact of Italy's economic downturn, see Fig. Over the last four weeks of January , NO 2 emissions in Bergamo city has been gradually declining.
In Paris and other major cities, the emission levels of NO 2 considerably lowered due to lockdown. The three major areas of France where NO 2 tropospheric concentration was significant are Paris, Lyon, Marseille and their surroundings. As shown in Fig. Edinburgh showed the most significant reduction.
The term particulate matter, referred to as PM, is used to identify tiny airborne particles. PM forms in the atmosphere when pollutants chemically react with each other. Particles include pollution, dirt, soot, smoke, and droplets. Grilling food by burning leaves or gas grills , smoking cigarettes, and burning wood on a fireplace or stove also contribute to PM.
The aerodynamic diameter is considered a simple way to describe PM's particle size as these particles occur in various shapes and densities. Particulates can be transported long distances then settle on the ground or in water sources. In these contexts and as a function of the chemical composition, PM 2.
PM emissions have been significantly reduced during the epidemic in most regions of Italy. Noise is characterised as an undesirable sound that may be produced from different activities, e. Noise can cause health problems and alter the natural condition of ecosystems. The European Environment Agency EEA states that traffic noise is a serious environmental problem that negatively affects the health and security of millions of citizens in Europe.
The consequences of long-term exposure to noise include sleep disorders, adverse effects on the heart and metabolic systems, and cognitive impairment in children. The EEA estimates that noise pollution contributes to 48, new cases of heart disease and 12, early deaths per year. They also reported chronic high irritation for 22 million people and a chronic high level of sleep disorder for 6.
Most governments have imposed quarantine measures that require people to spend much more time at home. This has considerably reduced the use of private and public transport. Commercial activities have almost completely stopped. In most cities in the world, these changes have caused a significant decline in noise levels. This was followed by a significant decline in pollution from contaminants and greenhouse gas emissions. Noise pollution from sources like road, rail or air transport has been linked to economic activity.
For example, it was obvious that environmental noise in Italy was reduced after 8 th March the lockdown start date due to a halt in commercial and recreational activities.
A seismograph facility in Lombardy city in Italy that was severely affected by the COVID pandemic indicated how the quarantine measures reduce both traffic and noise emissions. On 11 th March , when WHO declared a global pandemic, , reported cases spanning countries with over 4, fatalities had been reported.
This has overwhelmed the health systems of even the richest countries with doctors being forced to make the painful decision of who lives and who dies. The COVID pandemic has pushed the world into uncertainty and countries do not have a clear exit strategy in the absence of a vaccine. This pandemic has affected all segments of society. However, it is particularly damaging to vulnerable social groups, including people living in poverty, older persons, persons with disabilities, youths, indigenous people and ethnic minorities.
People with no home or shelter such as refugees, migrants, or displaced persons will suffer disproportionately, both during the pandemic and in its aftermath. This might occur in multiple ways, such as experiencing limited movement, fewer employment opportunities, increased xenophobia, etc. The social crisis created by the COVID pandemic may also increase inequality, discrimination and medium and long-term unemployment if not properly addressed by appropriate policies.
The protection measures taken to save lives are severely affecting economies all over the world. As discussed previously, the key protection measure adopted universally is the lockdown, which has forced people to work from home wherever possible. Workplace closures have disrupted supply chains and lowered productivity. In many instances, governments have closed borders to contain the spread.
A brief review of socio-economic and environmental impact of Covid-19
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COVID has heightened human suffering, undermined the economy, turned the lives of billions of people around the globe upside down, and significantly affected the health, economic, environmental and social domains. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID outbreak on the ecological domain, the energy sector, society and the economy and investigate the global preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of COVID This analysis unpacks the key responses to COVID, the efficacy of current initiatives, and summarises the lessons learnt as an update on the information available to authorities, business and industry. This review found that a hour delay in the collection and disposal of waste from infected households and quarantine facilities is crucial to controlling the spread of the virus. Broad sector by sector plans for socio-economic growth as well as a robust entrepreneurship-friendly economy is needed for the business to be sustainable at the peak of the pandemic. The socio-economic crisis has reshaped investment in energy and affected the energy sector significantly with most investment activity facing disruption due to mobility restrictions. Delays in energy projects are expected to create uncertainty in the years ahead.
Curitiba demonstrates that the goal of making cities more 'green' to mitigate their. Page 2. A. D. Basiago. impact on the environment can be embodied in.
This chapter aims to investigate how social and environmental progress indicators lead economic indicators of development in Sudan. Economic indicators are represented by gross domestic product GDP , investment, and unemployment. Social progress indicators are represented by life expectancy at birth standing for health and school enrollment for education. Environmental performance is indicated by access to safe drinking water and access to sanitation facilities. Trade as percentage of GDP is included to represent openness and outward of the economy.
Social, Economic and Environmental Impact Tool (SEE-IT)
To enable national, local and regional authorities to do better ex ante and ex post evaluations of age-friendly environments innovations, we have developed the SEE-IT : S ocio E conomic E nvironmental I mpact T ool. With the SEE-IT a conceptual framework is provided that can support cyclic, iterative processes of improvement and fine-tuning. Also the SEE-IT can be used as a tool for co-design partnership that creates support among stakeholders and others. Integrating these frameworks, the SEE-IT model highlights the areas of impact from social, economic and environmental perspectives. Within the realm of Age Friendly Environments and the experiences of older persons in our buildings, communities, cities and regions, it is possible to apply a demographic filter to the generic impact model canvas to support analysis from an active and healthy ageing view point.
In recent months, Covid has caused significant global social and economic distress. Governments and health officials around the world have introduced mandatory preventive measures to combat Covid, i. Social distancing and mandatory lockdown have also been put in place to protect people from Covid This epidemic has caused severe demographic changes and unemployment, and economic activities have been shut down to save human lives.
The recognition that the social, economic, and environment dimensions of sustainable development are heavily interwoven demands greater.
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Socioeconomics also known as social economics is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress , stagnate , or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Societies are divided into three groups: social, cultural and economic. It also refers to the ways that social and economic factors influence the environment.
Our "environment" includes both social and physical determinants of health. Social impacts on health are embedded in the broader environment and shaped by complex relationships between economic systems and social structures. These systems and structures impact the distribution of resources, money and power in a community and around the world. This distribution, known as the socioeconomic environment, shapes how communities and individuals can gain the resources needed to meet their basic human needs.
In ten years, more than half the world's population will be living in cities. The United Nations UN has stated that this will threaten cities with social conflict, environmental degradation and the collapse of basic services.
Economists assume that people make choices based on their preferences and their budget constraints. The preferences and values of others play no role in the standard economic model. This feature has been sharply criticized by other social scientists, who believe that the choices people make are also conditioned by social and cultural forces.
Rather than attempting to exhaustively list the whole plethora of products and processes in the bioeconomy, the database presents a taxonomy of the main product categories, production processes and types of feedstock in the bioeconomy as well as some salient sustainability impacts and governance issues. The document is available for download. The Summary Report on the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of the Bioeconomy explains that the bioeconomy encompasses a broad range of activities, situated along a multitude of different value chains, each including suppliers, producers, distributors, and purchasers. It shows that the social, economic and environmental impacts of bioeconomy activities are thus not always limited to the place of production of a bio-based product e. Bio-based products and processes may entail intended or unintended impacts on human society and the environment.
This study models local and cross-city transmissions of the novel coronavirus in China between January 19 and February 29, We examine the role of various socioeconomic mediating factors, including public health measures that encourage social distancing in local communities. Weather characteristics 2 weeks prior are used as instrumental variables for causal inference. Stringent quarantines, city lockdowns, and local public health measures imposed in late January significantly decreased the virus transmission rate.
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