Pdf Section 4 Quiz Chapter 17 Foreign Policy And Defense Alliance

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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own.

International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions.

While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of great powers is formally recognized in conferences such as the Congress of Vienna [1] [3] [4] or the United Nations Security Council. The term "great power" was first used to represent the most important powers in Europe during the post- Napoleonic era.

The "Great Powers" constituted the " Concert of Europe " and claimed the right to joint enforcement of the postwar treaties. In literature, alternative terms for great power are often world power [13] or major power.

There are no set or defined characteristics of a great power. These characteristics have often been treated as empirical, self-evident to the assessor. As a result, there have been attempts to derive some common criteria and to treat these as essential elements of great power status.

Danilovic highlights three central characteristics, which she terms as "power, spatial, and status dimensions," that distinguish major powers from other states. The following section "Characteristics" is extracted from her discussion of these three dimensions, including all of the citations.

Early writings on the subject tended to judge states by the realist criterion, as expressed by the historian A. Taylor when he noted that "The test of a great power is the test of strength for war. As noted above, for many, power capabilities were the sole criterion.

However, even under the more expansive tests, power retains a vital place. This aspect has received mixed treatment, with some confusion as to the degree of power required. Writers have approached the concept of great power with differing conceptualizations of the world situation, from multi-polarity to overwhelming hegemony. In his essay, 'French Diplomacy in the Postwar Period', the French historian Jean-Baptiste Duroselle spoke of the concept of multi-polarity: "A Great power is one which is capable of preserving its own independence against any other single power.

This differed from earlier writers, notably from Leopold von Ranke , who clearly had a different idea of the world situation. In his essay 'The Great Powers', written in , von Ranke wrote: "If one could establish as a definition of a Great power that it must be able to maintain itself against all others, even when they are united, then Frederick has raised Prussia to that position.

All states have a geographic scope of interests, actions, or projected power. This is a crucial factor in distinguishing a great power from a regional power; by definition, the scope of a regional power is restricted to its region. It has been suggested that a great power should be possessed of actual influence throughout the scope of the prevailing international system. Arnold J. Toynbee , for example, observes that "Great power may be defined as a political force exerting an effect co-extensive with the widest range of the society in which it operates.

The Great powers of were 'world-powers' because Western society had recently become 'world-wide'. Other suggestions have been made that a great power should have the capacity to engage in extra-regional affairs and that a great power ought to be possessed of extra-regional interests, two propositions which are often closely connected.

Formal or informal acknowledgment of a nation's great power status has also been a criterion for being a great power.

As political scientist George Modelski notes, "The status of Great power is sometimes confused with the condition of being powerful.

The office, as it is known, did in fact evolve from the role played by the great military states in earlier periods But the Great power system institutionalizes the position of the powerful state in a web of rights and obligations.

This approach restricts analysis to the epoch following the Congress of Vienna at which great powers were first formally recognized. A further option is to examine a state's willingness to act as a great power. As a result, this is of limited use in establishing the nature of contemporary powers, at least not without the exercise of subjective observation.

Other important criteria throughout history are that great powers should have enough influence to be included in discussions of contemporary political and diplomatic questions and exercise influence on the final outcome and resolution.

Historically, when major political questions were addressed, several great powers met to discuss them. Before the era of groups like the United Nations, participants of such meetings were not officially named but rather were decided based on their great power status.

These were conferences that settled important questions based on major historical events. Different sets of great, or significant, powers have existed throughout history. An early reference to great powers is from the 3rd century, when the Persian prophet Mani described Rome , China , Aksum , and Persia as the four greatest kingdoms of his time.

Lord Castlereagh , the British foreign secretary , first used the term in its diplomatic context, writing on 13 February "there is every prospect of the Congress terminating with a general accord and Guarantee between the Great powers of Europe, with a determination to support the arrangement agreed upon, and to turn the general influence and if necessary the general arms against the Power that shall first attempt to disturb the Continental peace.

These five primary participants constituted the original great powers as we know the term today. After the Congress of Vienna, the United Kingdom emerged as the pre-eminent power, due to its navy and the extent of its overseas empire, which signalled the Pax Britannica.

The balance of power between the Great Powers became a major influence in European politics, prompting Otto von Bismarck to say "All politics reduces itself to this formula: try to be one of three, as long as the world is governed by the unstable equilibrium of five great powers.

Over time, the relative power of these five nations fluctuated, which by the dawn of the 20th century had served to create an entirely different balance of power. The United Kingdom and Prussia as the founder of the newly formed German state , experienced continued economic growth and political power.

These countries seeking to attain great power status were: Italy after the Risorgimento era , Japan during the Meiji era , and the United States after its civil war. By , the balance of world power had changed substantially since the Congress of Vienna.

It formed in and consisted of the five Congress powers plus Italy, Japan, and the United States, representing the great powers at the beginning of the 20th century.

Shifts of international power have most notably occurred through major conflicts. During the decision-making of the Treaty of Versailles , Italy pulled out of the conference because a part of its demands were not met and temporarily left the other three countries as the sole major architects of that treaty, referred to as the "Big Three". The status of the victorious great powers were recognised by permanent seats at the League of Nations Council, where they acted as a type of executive body directing the Assembly of the League.

However, the Council began with only four permanent members — the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Japan — because the United States, meant to be the fifth permanent member, did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and never joined the League. Germany later joined but left along with Japan, and the Soviet Union joined. Since the end of the World Wars, the term "great power" has been joined by a number of other power classifications. Foremost among these is the concept of the superpower , used to describe those nations with overwhelming power and influence in the rest of the world.

It was first coined in by William T. Regional powers are those whose influence is generally confined to their region of the world. France and the United Kingdom maintained technologically advanced armed forces with power projection capabilities and maintain large defense budgets to this day.

Yet, as the Cold War continued, authorities began to question if France and the United Kingdom could retain their long-held statuses as great powers. After , the Republic of China began to lose its recognition as the sole legitimate government of China by the other great powers, in favour of the People's Republic of China. According to Joshua Baron, since the early s direct military conflicts and major confrontations have "receded into the background" with regards to relations among the great powers.

Baron highlights that since World War Two no other great power has been able to achieve parity or near parity with the United States, with the exception of the Soviet Union for a brief time. This unique period of American primacy has been an important factor in maintaining a condition of peace between the great powers.

Another important factor is the apparent consensus among Western great powers that military force is no longer an effective tool of resolving disputes among their peers. As evidence, Baron outlines that since the Cuban Missile Crisis during the Cold War, these influential Western nations have resolved all disputes among the great powers peacefully at the United Nations and other forums of international discussion.

Referring to great power relations pre, Baron highlights that starting from around the 16th century and the rise of several European great powers, military conflicts and confrontations was the defining characteristic of diplomacy and relations between such powers.

During this approximately year time frame, on average, at least two great powers were fighting one another in each and every year.

China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are often referred to as great powers by academics due to "their political and economic dominance of the global arena".

They are also the only state entities to have met the conditions to be considered " Nuclear Weapons States " under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons , and maintain military expenditures which are among the largest in the world. For example, sources have at times referred to China, [47] France, [48] Russia [49] [50] [51] and the United Kingdom [48] as middle powers.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union , its UN Security Council permanent seat was transferred to the Russian Federation in , as its successor state. The newly formed Russian Federation emerged on the level of a great power, leaving the United States as the only remaining global superpower [nb 2] although some support a multipolar world view.

Japan and Germany are great powers too, though due to their large advanced economies having the third and fourth largest economies respectively rather than their strategic and hard power capabilities i. Italy has been referred to as a great power by a number of academics and commentators throughout the post WWII era.

The great powers are super-sovereign states: an exclusive club of the most powerful states economically, militarily, politically and strategically. Sterio also cites Italy's status in the Group of Seven G7 and the nation's influence in regional and international organizations for its status as a great power.

Some analysts assert that Italy is an "intermittent" or the "least of the great powers" , [70] [71] while some others believe Italy is a middle or regional power. In addition to these contemporary great powers mentioned above, Zbigniew Brzezinski [75] and Mohan Malik consider India to be a great power too. With continuing European integration , the European Union is increasingly being seen as a great power in its own right, [83] with representation at the WTO and at G7 and G summits.

This is most notable in areas where the European Union has exclusive competence i. It also reflects a non-traditional conception of Europe's world role as a global "civilian power", exercising collective influence in the functional spheres of trade and diplomacy, as an alternative to military dominance.

Anyway these remain largely with the member states of the European Union , which includes France, Germany and, before Brexit , the United Kingdom referred to collectively as the " EU three ".

Brazil and India are widely regarded as emerging powers with the potential to be great powers. Cohen asserts that India is an emerging power, but highlights that some strategists consider India to be already a great power. Robinson already regard India as a major or great power. Permanent membership of the UN Security Council is widely regarded as being a central tenet of great power status in the modern world; Brazil, Germany, India and Japan form the G4 nations which support one another and have varying degrees of support from the existing permanent members in becoming permanent members.

There are however few signs that reform of the Security Council will happen in the near future. Israel [91] [92] and Iran [93] [92] are also mentioned in the context of great powers. In relation to great powers, he makes the following points:. The United States is still preeminent but the legitimacy, effectiveness, and durability of its leadership is increasingly questioned worldwide because of the complexity of its internal and external challenges.

The European Union could compete to be the world's number two power, but this would require a more robust political union, with a common foreign policy and a shared defense capability. In contrast, China's remarkable economic momentum, its capacity for decisive political decisions motivated by clearheaded and self-centered national interest, its relative freedom from debilitating external commitments, and its steadily increasing military potential coupled with the worldwide expectation that soon it will challenge America's premier global status justify ranking China just below the United States in the current international hierarchy.

A sequential ranking of other major powers beyond the top two would be imprecise at best. Great Powers If we distil from this description of great power attributes and capabilities a list of criteria, it is clear why these four powers dominate the international security debate.

The possession of superior military and economic capabilities can be translated into measurements such as military expenditure and GDP, and nowhere are the inherent privileges of great powers more visible than in the voting mechanisms of the United Nations Security Council UNSC , where five permanent members have an overriding veto.

Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of great powers is formally recognized in conferences such as the Congress of Vienna [1] [3] [4] or the United Nations Security Council.

The Dutch—like Americans and other Europeans—want a government that works. Public employees in Italy have become the scapegoat for an economic crisis that politicians must address. The enhanced security measures in the U. From Afghanistan to China, the new administration seems likely to hold on to some ideas from the previous one. Thant Myint-U on the future of the protests, what Beijing wants, and what Washington can do to help. Power Map: An analysis of global competition for resources, shipping routes, and territory in the new frontier. Looking back on 50 years of U.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

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Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf

With over 10 million members in Pakistan and abroad, it claims to be Pakistan's largest party by primary membership and among largest political parties in world. PTI was founded in by cricketer turned politician Imran Khan with the aim of establishing Pakistan as a welfare state.

Chapter 17: Questions & Answers

It remains a unique and enduring principle that binds its members together, committing them to protect each other and setting a spirit of solidarity within the Alliance. NATO constantly reviews and transforms its policies, capabilities and structures to ensure that it can continue to address current and future challenges to the freedom and security of its members. Presently, Allied forces are required to carry out a wide range of missions across several continents; the Alliance needs to ensure that its armed forces remain modern, deployable, and capable of sustained operations. Many of the challenges NATO faces require cooperation with other stakeholders in the international community. Over more than 25 years, the Alliance has developed a network of partnerships with non-member countries from the Euro-Atlantic area, the Mediterranean and the Gulf region, and other partners across the globe.

An expanding bloc of NATO allies has taken on a broad range of missions since the close of the Cold War, many well beyond the Euro-Atlantic region, in countries such as Afghanistan and Libya. In , as the alliance turns seventy, it faces a new set of challenges. Russia has reemerged as a top geostrategic rival in recent years, underscored by its military incursions into Georgia and Ukraine as well as its political meddling in NATO countries. Security Alliances. Europe and Eurasia.

Slide 3. Chapter 17, Section 4. Key Terms. • foreign aid: economic and military aid given to other countries. • regional security alliance: nations united by a.

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