File Name: chapter 11 principles and practice of clinical hematology .zip
- Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice
- Blood film
- Adult Care - Chapter 11 - Communicable Diseases
The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Haematology provides core and concise information on the entire spectrum of blood disorders affecting both adults and children. Updated for its fourth edition, it includes all major advances in the specialty, including malignant haematology, haemato-oncology, coagulation, transfusion medicine, and red cell disorders, with a brand new chapter on rare diseases. It is divided into clinical approach and disease-specific areas.
Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice
A blood film —or peripheral blood smear —is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological blood disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites , such as those of malaria and filariasis. Blood films are made by placing a drop of blood on one end of a slide, and using a spreader slide to disperse the blood over the slide's length.
The aim is to get a region, called a monolayer, where the cells are spaced far enough apart to be counted and differentiated. The monolayer is found in the "feathered edge" created by the spreader slide as it draws the blood forward. The slide is left to air dry, after which the blood is fixed to the slide by immersing it briefly in methanol. The fixative is essential for good staining and presentation of cellular detail. After fixation, the slide is stained to distinguish the cells from each other.
Routine analysis of blood in medical laboratories is usually performed on blood films stained with Romanowsky stains such as Wright's stain , Giemsa stain , or Diff-Quik. Wright-Giemsa combination stain is also a popular choice. These stains allow for the detection of white blood cell , red blood cell , and platelet abnormalities.
Hematopathologists often use other specialized stains to aid in the differential diagnosis of blood disorders.
After staining, the monolayer is viewed under a microscope using magnification up to x. Individual cells are examined and their morphology is characterized and recorded. Blood smear examination is usually performed in conjunction with a complete blood count in order to investigate abnormal results or confirm results that the automated analyzer has flagged as unreliable. Microscopic examination of the shape, size, and coloration of red blood cells is useful for determining the cause of anemia.
Disorders such as iron deficiency anemia , sickle cell anemia , megaloblastic anemia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia result in characteristic abnormalities on the blood film. The proportions of different types of white blood cells can be determined from the blood smear.
This is known as a manual white blood cell differential. The white blood cell differential can reveal abnormalities in the proportions of white blood cell types, such as neutrophilia and eosinophilia , as well as the presence of abnormal cells such as the circulating blast cells seen in acute leukemia.
Modern complete blood count analyzers can provide an automated white blood cell differential, but they have a limited ability to differentiate immature and abnormal cells, so manual examination of the blood smear is frequently indicated.
Blood smear examination is the preferred diagnostic method for certain parasitic infections, such as malaria and babesiosis. The preferred and most reliable diagnosis of malaria is microscopic examination of blood films, because each of the four major parasite species has distinguishing characteristics. Two sorts of blood film are traditionally used. From the thick film, an experienced microscopist can detect all parasites they encounter. Microscopic diagnosis can be difficult because the early trophozoites "ring form" of all four species look identical and it is never possible to diagnose species on the basis of a single ring form; species identification is always based on several trophozoites.
The biggest pitfall in most laboratories in developed countries is leaving too great a delay between taking the blood sample and making the blood films. As blood cools to room temperature, male gametocytes will divide and release microgametes : these are long sinuous filamentous structures that can be mistaken for organisms such as Borrelia. This problem is made worse if anticoagulants such as heparin or citrate are used.
The anticoagulant that causes the least problems is EDTA. Romanowsky stain or a variant stain is usually used. Some laboratories mistakenly use the same staining pH as they do for routine haematology blood films pH 6. Immunochromatographic capture procedures rapid diagnostic tests such as the malaria antigen detection tests are nonmicroscopic diagnostic options for the laboratory that may not have appropriate microscopy expertise available. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the microscope slide. For films with excessive blood and gore, see slasher film. Stained blood on microscope slide. Two push-type peripheral blood smears suitable for characterization of cellular blood elements.
Left smear is unstained, right smear is stained with Wright-Giemsa stain. Closeups of the feathered edge of blood smears. The pale middle band of the gradient is the monolayer. The left image shows a microscopic view of a normal adult blood film, while the right image shows a blood film from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia. Davis Company. Elsevier Mosby. Annals of Laboratory Medicine.
Retrieved 12 June American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Greer; Sherrie L. Perkins December Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. Rosenblatt Clinical Infectious Diseases. Gerard; E. Lebas; A. Godon; O. Blanchet; F. Genevieve; A. Mercat; M. Zandecki Annales de biologie clinique. J Clin Pathol. Hematology blood tests. Hemoglobin Hematocrit Red blood cell count Red blood cell indices Mean corpuscular hemoglobin Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration Mean corpuscular volume Red blood cell distribution width White blood cell count White blood cell differential Absolute neutrophil count Platelet count Mean platelet volume Reticulocyte count Reticulocyte index.
Fetal hemoglobin Apt—Downey test Kleihauer—Betke test Hemoglobinopathy testing Hemoglobin electrophoresis Sickle solubility test Mentzer index Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Haptoglobin Osmotic fragility. Clotting factors Prothrombin time Partial thromboplastin time Thrombin time Activated clotting time Fibrinogen Bleeding time animal enzyme Reptilase time Ecarin clotting time Dilute Russell's viper venom time Thromboelastography Thrombodynamics test Fibrinolysis Euglobulin lysis time D-dimer Von Willebrand factor Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation.
Blood film Blood viscosity Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride test Flow cytometry Immunophenotyping. Categories : Blood tests Pathology. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
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University of Minnesota Minneapolis. This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. In the relatively short period since the first edition of Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice was published in , there have been significant advances in understanding the biology of normal and abnormal hematopoiesis at both the cellular and molecular levels. These advances have had considerable impact on clinical hematology both in diagnosis and treatment. In recognition of this rapidly expanding knowledge base, the editors of Hematology have prepared a second edition.
The phlebotomist should not prelabel tubes; tubes should be labeled after the blood is drawn and before leaving the patient. Test results that can be affected by this selection of tubes and order of draw include the prothrombin time PT , potassium, and type and screen. Is the slide right side up? In advanced liver disease, poor liver circulation causes pressure in the portal circulation. This enlarges the spleen splenomegaly. In most cases, platelet function is reduced.
PDF format 1. The section covers the following topics:. Immunization represents the single most important preventative measure for many communicable diseases. Immunizations are safe and effective and represent a cornerstone of public health. They make a significant contribution to the control of infectious diseases in Canada.
Adult Care - Chapter 11 - Communicable Diseases
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Benz, Jr. Availability: This title is currently out of stock. We will ship as soon as we receive our stock. Get the expert guidance you need to offer your patients the best possible outcomes with Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, 7th Edition. This thoroughly up-to-date text contains both unparalleled scientific content and must-know clinical guidance , so you can enhance your problem-solving skills and make optimal use of the newest diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options in this fast-changing field.
Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Various technologies have changed and improved the practice of haematology. Because it is possible to obtain blood cells so readily via a simple venepuncture , haematology has been at the forefront of technological developments in medicine.
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