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The fully updated third edition of this lively and accessible book argues for the central role of media in understanding globalization.
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Globalization and Media - E-bog
Imagine the vast spectrum of all the cultures in the world. Listen to the music—from the gentle drum beats of Africa, to the melodic didgeridoo of Australia, to the scream of the electric guitar. Taste the curry from India, the coconut milk from Thailand, the cheeseburger from the United States. Now imagine that all these cultures are compressed into one super-culture.
The individually unique music is now a raucous cacophony. The individually savory flavors are a muddled sludge. All the countries in the world are united under one government and one religion. Communists follow the same rules as those previously under a democracy. Muslims and Christians live by the same religious standards. How would we deal with that?
In light of rapidly accelerating globalization and expansion of technology, it becomes relevant to discuss the implications of a potential overarching culture with respect to the potential clashing of cultures. The assertion that it is possible for all the cultures of the world to become one global village is controversial, though.
On one hand,people believe that if it continues, cultural globalization will lead to a dazzling marketplace where countries of all economic opportunities are represented and where more fortunate countries come to the aid of less fortunate ones with humanitarian efforts. On the other hand, people are afraid that the evolution of a global village will raise conflicts between cultures, cause a fragmentation of culture, or lead to cultural domination by more developed countries and possibly create hybrid cultures Johnson This essay will consider the implications of conflicting arguments addressing this question.
Understanding what these changes will mean for each existing culture individually, and being careful to consider all sides of the discussion with equal relevance is essential to forming a universal understanding of what globalization means. If we cannot agree on the implications of these cultural shifts, perhaps we cannot identify ourselves as members of a global village after all.
The issue of cultural identity is certainly not a new one. More than ever, examples of cultural globalization can be seen in our everyday lives. The Internet has exploded with a boom in technology, providing individuals from all over the world the opportunity to communicate instantly with each other.
Instant messenger, Facebook, Myspace and various online forums are examples of this instant communication. In order to examine these complex problems, we must carefully consider examples of each of the potential outcomes Johnson refers to. A main concern held by those wary of the effects of cultural globalization is that American media and culture have a negative impact on other cultures around the world. In other words, countries with more economic influence will eventually control the cultural standards by which the rest of the world will have to live.
Harris goes on to describe how American media giants are taking advantage of globalization to self promote while homogenizing musical diversity. America is blamed mostly for its alleged imposition of culture and mass media; however, other developed countries in China and Europe are also at fault as they reinforce American Culture globally.
MTV claims to adapt its programming accordingly to each country and to attempt to spread a mix of ethnic programming from country to country. If these networks accurately depict the cultures of each host country, then MTV has caught on to the globalization trend. The problem with this permeation of the music market globally, however, is that the economic power of MTV as an American company supercedes the alleged diffusion of cultures that it claims to inspire.
Related to the idea of cultural domination is perhaps a more essential issue. As this shift towards cultural sharing and overlapping ensues, how does globalization affect cultural diversity?
Critics and activists adamantly argue this point. A prime example of this frustration is the proliferation of American fast food restaurant chains in foreign countries. The excitement of visiting another country is easily soured upon stepping out of the airplane only to see American fast food chain restaurants. The potential loss of less spoken languages is a serious concern. Losing these languages poses serious cultural risks because we lose aspects of the smaller cultures that are now unable to articulate their beliefs and knowledge as a result of the extinction of their language.
With this loss, not only does our world become more mundane, but we also run the more serious risk of losing some cultures forever. This is certainly worth considering in our discussion of cultural boundaries. One culture does not need to be drastically changed for the worse in order to enjoy the rich diversity of another.
Philippe Legrain, the chief economist of Britain and a former advisor in the World Trade Organization, is adamant that globalization is a positive cultural trend. These people also address the phenomenon of Westernization, or expansion of products and customs from western developed countries, as not necessarily an imposition of culture, but an opportunity for less developed countries to incorporate their own culture with Western culture.
They justify this assertion by pointing to the fact that the United States is composed of a melting pot of cultures to begin with. To these people, globalization is not an evil change being thrust upon society. It is a natural evolution and progression of how people interact with each other given advanced capabilities to communicate.
With enhanced communication, though, comes the inevitable realization that some nations are less financially capable of supporting their citizens than others. The harsh realities of poverty, starvation, disease and civil war are now made more evident to those who live in privileged countries.
It would make sense, therefore, if individuals used the excuse to not help less fortunate people in the world because they were not aware of their suffering, they could no longer ignore the pain that exists outside their comfort zones.
It frightens people to come to terms with suffering in the world. It also raises the question of exactly how much the suffering of other countries and the failing of their governments becomes our responsibility as an affluent nation. These considerations need to be made and some sort of system established to ensure that countries that are economically able help to improve the standard of life in developing countries while maintaining prosperity for their own people.
With increased responsibility to support impoverished countries comes the consideration that perhaps an enhanced system of interconnectedness between countries will lead to global cooperation and peace. This assertion does not specify, however, that supporting cultural identity in specific response to globalization will lead to peaceful relations between countries.
It seems obvious that if all countries felt secure in the protection of their cultural beliefs in the world, we would live peacefully. It is idealistic to imagine a situation where cultures can meld together without losing their individuality while remaining peaceful about the compression of global culture. More likely a clashing of cultural ideals and values would ensue.
An example of this antipathy can easily be seen while examining world religions. In the Middle East, wars have been raging for centuries over religious ideologies. She describes how cultural clashes emerge when studying parenting styles. She writes about a specific study involving Lebanese and Australian mothers whose cultures led them to parent in very different ways, and as a result feel resentful toward the mothers of the other culture.
Since children play a significant role in all world cultures, it makes sense that each culture would have very different expectations and customs surrounding parenting. This small slice of cultural practice is representative of many other engrained cultural differences around the globe. Perhaps if existing cultures were not already set up to contradict each other, a peaceful threshold could be reached.
Whether the world is shrinking, expanding, or remaining the same metaphorical size, it is clear that how we communicate across physical and cultural boundaries is changing at an accelerated rate.
With these changes comes a responsibility, as humans, to consider the implications of our shifting realities. Without an objective and inclusive analysis of these issues, we will be unprepared for the rollercoaster of cultural mayhem that could inevitably ensue. If we are in fact becoming a global village, will we be able to reach some sort of consensus about how these issues should be addressed in order to benefit all members of our village equally?
If we cannot determine respectful cultural boundaries in the simplest manner with regards to language, economy, and basic means of survival, it is presumptuous to assume that we can identify as a global village at all.
Harris, John. Johnson, June. Global Issues, Local Arguments. New York: Pearson Education Inc, Legrain, Phillipe. Small, Meredith F. New York: Anchor Books, Dixon, V. Dixon, Violet K. Understanding the Implications of a Global Village.
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Read Globalization And Media Global Village Of Babel Online
Imagine the vast spectrum of all the cultures in the world. Listen to the music—from the gentle drum beats of Africa, to the melodic didgeridoo of Australia, to the scream of the electric guitar. Taste the curry from India, the coconut milk from Thailand, the cheeseburger from the United States. Now imagine that all these cultures are compressed into one super-culture. The individually unique music is now a raucous cacophony. The individually savory flavors are a muddled sludge. All the countries in the world are united under one government and one religion.
PDF | On Apr 3, , Francesco Somaini published Book review: Globalization and media: Global village of Babel | Find, read and cite all the.
Globalization and Media : Global Village of Babel
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Glocalization - Wikipedia, the free. Glocalization a portmanteau of globalization and localization is a term denoting the adaptation of a product or service specifically to each locality or culture in. Globalization and the mass media.
This lively and accessible book argues for the central role of media in understanding globalization. Indeed, Jack Lule convincingly shows that globalization could not have occurred without media.