File Name: recombinant technology and its application .zip
- Application of recombinant DNA technology to the production of useful biomaterials
- Recombinant DNA
- Overview: DNA cloning
- Journal of Molecular Genetics
Application of recombinant DNA technology to the production of useful biomaterials
Recombinant DNA rDNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination such as molecular cloning that bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by combining at least two fragments from two different sources. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure, and differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA , because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends. In addition, DNA sequences that do not occur anywhere in nature may be created by the chemical synthesis of DNA , and incorporated into recombinant molecules. Proteins that can result from the expression of recombinant DNA within living cells are termed recombinant proteins.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. There is no evidence that unique hazards exist either in the use of R-ONA techniques or in the movement of genes between unrelated organisms. To avoid inhibiting the development and.
The first production of recombinant DNA molecules, using restriction enzymes, occurred in the early s. Researchers at UC San Francisco and Stanford used restriction enzymes to cut DNA from different species at specific sites, and then fused the cut strands from the different species back together. Boyer would co-found Genentech, Inc. Paul Berg, a biochemist at Stanford who was among the first to produce a recombinant DNA molecule in , wrote a letter shortly afterwards, along with ten other researchers, to the journal Science. In the letter, they urged the National Institutes of Health to regulate the use of recombinant DNA technology and meanwhile, they urged scientists to halt most recombinant DNA experiments until they better understood whether the technique is safe. These concerns eventually led to the Asilomar Conference, where one hundred scientists gathered to discuss the safety of manipulating DNA from different species. The meeting resulted in a set of NIH guidelines.
It is generated by transferring selected pieces of DNA from one organism to another. The vial shown in the photograph contains human insulin, one of the first therapeutic proteins that was genetically cloned. The drug is used to treat diabetes. Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Genetic engineering is used for many different purposes in research, medicine, agriculture and industry. The technology is important because it enables the creation of multiple copies of genes and the insertion of foreign genes into other organisms to give them new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or a new colour. One of the first ways in which the technology was deployed was to re-engineer microbial cells to produce foreign proteins.
Overview: DNA cloning
Authors : Alemayehu Choramo and Motuma Debelo. Abstract: Human beings want enjoying highest attainable standard of basic health without discrimination of race, religion and political belief, economic or social condition. The benefits of medical, psychological and related knowledge have to be extended all people to the fullest attainment of health. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Three factors affect human life greatly by: deficiency of food, health problems and environmental issues.
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Bioproducts pp Cite as.
Journal of Molecular Genetics
Mark A. Essays Biochem 16 October ; 63 4 : — DNA present in all our cells acts as a template by which cells are built. The human genome project, reading the code of the DNA within our cells, completed in , is undoubtedly one of the great achievements of modern bioscience. Our ability to achieve this and to further understand and manipulate DNA has been tightly linked to our understanding of the bacterial and viral world. Outside of the science, the ability to understand and manipulate this code has far-reaching implications for society. In this article, we explore some of the basic techniques that enable us to read, copy and manipulate DNA sequences alongside a brief consideration of some of the implications for society.
Recombinant DNA changes the natural genetic makeup and the characteristics of an organism by inserting DNA from another organism. Also known as genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology is widely used in agriculture to create genetically-modified organisms that produce genetically-modified crops. The first GM food was the Flavr Savr tomato, produced in , which had a longer shelf life and an enhanced flavor. Since then, the number of GMOs has exploded as producers prefer them over traditional crops because they yield more and require less care. Some GMO crops are resistant to herbicides.
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PDF | Biotechnology which is synonymous with genetic engineering or recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an industrial process that uses the scientific.