File Name: models and theories of leadership .zip
- 7 Major Leadership Theories Every Manager Should Master in 2021
- The Evolution of Leadership Theory
- Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories
Global Journal of management and Business Studies. Manoj Kumar Sharma and Miss. Shilpa Jain 1 Assistant Professor, Bus.
7 Major Leadership Theories Every Manager Should Master in 2021
Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams , or entire organizations. Often viewed as a contested term,  specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also within the West North American versus European approaches. Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits ,  situational interaction, function, behavior,  power , vision and values ,  charisma , and intelligence, among others.
In the field of political leadership, the Chinese doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven postulated the need for rulers to govern justly and the right of subordinates to overthrow emperors who appeared to lack divine sanction. Pro- aristocracy thinkers  have postulated that leadership depends on one's "blue blood" or genes. On the other hand, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent.
Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such models as patriarchal and posit against them "emotionally attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance, which is sometimes associated [ by whom? Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness.
Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty. When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. Machiavelli's The Prince , written in the earlyth century, provided a manual for rulers "princes" or "tyrants" in Machiavelli's terminology to gain and keep power. Prior to the 19th century, the concept of leadership had less relevance than today - society expected and obtained traditional deference and obedience to lords, kings, master-craftsmen and slave-masters.
Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word "leadership" in English only as far back as From the 19th century too, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership.
The doctrines of Caesaro-papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely-provided resources—human and material—and their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. For a more general view on leadership in politics , compare the concept of the statesperson. The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical writings from Plato 's Republic  to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?
This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the " trait theory of leadership ". A number of works in the 19th century — when the traditional authority of monarchs, lords and bishops had begun to wane — explored the trait theory at length: note especially the writings of Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galton , whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship , Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power.
Galton's Hereditary Genius examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of a leader. Cecil Rhodes — believed that public-spirited leadership could be nurtured by identifying young people with "moral force of character and instincts to lead", and educating them in contexts such as the collegiate environment of the University of Oxford which further developed such characteristics.
International networks of such leaders could help to promote international understanding and help "render war impossible". This vision of leadership underlay the creation of the Rhodes Scholarships , which have helped to shape notions of leadership since their creation in In the late s and early s, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies e. In reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that people who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations.
Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches see alternative leadership theories below posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others.
The focus then shifted away from traits of leaders to an investigation of the leader behaviors that were effective. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades.
New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership.
For example, improvements in researchers' use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks.
This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following:. While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Specifically, Zaccaro  noted that trait theories still:. Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach.
In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential.
Kurt Lewin , Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making , praise and criticism feedback , and the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: authoritarian , democratic , and laissez-faire.
In , Ohio State University conducted a study which investigated observable behaviors portrayed by effective leaders. They would then identify if these particular behaviors are reflective of leadership effectiveness. They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions  The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with the followers, defines goals, and determines how tasks are performed.
These are considered "task oriented" behaviors. The second dimension is "Consideration", which indicates the leader's ability to build an interpersonal relationship with their followers, to establish a form of mutual trust. These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. The Michigan State Studies, which were conducted in the s, made further investigations and findings that positively correlated behaviors and leadership effectiveness.
Although they had similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they also contributed an additional behavior identified in leaders: participative behavior also called "servant leadership" , or allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input. This entails avoiding controlling types of leadership and allows more personal interactions between leaders and their subordinates.
The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.
Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future.
Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised. In this example, praise the stimulus is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives at work on time the behavior more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time.
Positive reinforcement coined by Skinner enables a behavior to be repeated in a positive manner, and on the other hand a negative reinforcer is repeated in a way that is not as plausible as the positive.
The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates. Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs. Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested.
Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches.
Building upon the research of Lewin et al. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems.
Three contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, and the path-goal theory. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability later called situational control. The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group relationship-oriented , and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself task-oriented.
Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a "favorable situation". Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability.
Victor Vroom , in collaboration with Phillip Yetton  and later with Arthur Jago ,  developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations, which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables, defining which approach was more suitable to which situation. This model was later referred to as situational contingency theory. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House and was based on the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom.
In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model , the path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory , as it depends on the circumstances, and as a transactional leadership theory , as the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behavior between the leader and the followers.
This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion Fleishman et al. In summarizing literature on functional leadership see Kozlowski et al. These functions include environmental monitoring, organizing subordinate activities, teaching and coaching subordinates, motivating others, and intervening actively in the group's work.
A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors' behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure. Consideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships.
Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others.
The Evolution of Leadership Theory
There are many models and theories of leadership. For example, the following models appear in the literature:. Some authors make difference between the old paradigm models and the new paradigm models of leadership. This has been argued as important, not only because all leaders are also followers, but also because modern notions of leadership place considerable emphasis on the power and importance of followers in ultimately legitimizing and enabling leadership. As leadership models can often be viewed as cyclical in nature, with a new model replacing an older fad at regular intervals, it appears that the world of leadership should be poised to adopt a new model. Leadership Models. Trait Approach.
For many managers and employees who hope to advance to managerial positions, preparing for leadership means studying topics like leadership theories, team-building strategies and social psychology. There are many different ways to be an effective leader and often, an individual deemed an effective leader in one field is not quite as effective in another. But there are certain core principles at play in every leadership role, like the importance of effective communication. Learning how to be an effective leader requires one to understand the principles supporting leadership and management. Social scientists and other types of academics have studied leadership models and theories in earnest since the 19th century. One early type of leadership theory was the trait theory of leadership , which held that certain individuals were suited to leadership positions because they had personality traits like extroversion, courage and self-confidence.
Do good leaders make good managers? Or is it the other way around? It's a chicken-and-egg question that has no clear-cut answer. However, one thing is for sure — while leadership and management are not the same, they both must go hand in hand. If managers are to be effective in their role, it is essential for them to imbibe certain leadership skills. And if leaders want to lead successfully, they must know how to manage their followers — employees, peers, and stakeholders — so that they feel more inspired, empowered, and engaged, leading to a successful organization.
Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories
Management takes place within a structured organisational setting with prescribed roles. It is directed towards the achievement of aims and objectives through influencing the efforts of others. Reduces the span of attention or effort for any one person or group.
Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams , or entire organizations. Often viewed as a contested term,  specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also within the West North American versus European approaches. Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits ,  situational interaction, function, behavior,  power , vision and values ,  charisma , and intelligence, among others. In the field of political leadership, the Chinese doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven postulated the need for rulers to govern justly and the right of subordinates to overthrow emperors who appeared to lack divine sanction.
Leadership is one of the most complex and multifaceted phenomena to which organisational and psychological research has been applied. An evolutionary developmental perspective is used to create an evolutionary tree of leadership theory and reveal the path along which it has evolved. Nine evolutionary eras are identified, and requirements for a tenth era of leadership theory are discussed. These eras provide a broad framework for researchers and practising managers to categorise existing, and evaluate future, theories. Van Seters, D.