Critical Thinking By Richard Paul And Linda Elder Pdf

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Critical Thinking Learn the Tools the Best Thinkers Use, Concise Edition

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Paul and Elder, The Paul-Elder framework has three components:. According to Paul and Elder , there are two essential dimensions of thinking that students need to master in order to learn how to upgrade their thinking.

They need to be able to identify the "parts" of their thinking, and they need to be able to assess their use of these parts of thinking. The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.

Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder , , the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning. The intellectual standards include:. Consistent application of the standards of thinking to the elements of thinking result in the development of intellectual traits of:. Habitual utilization of the intellectual traits produce a well-cultivated critical thinker who is able to:.

Paul, R. Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework. Clarity Could you elaborate? Could you illustrate what you mean? Could you give me an example? Accuracy How could we check on that? How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that? Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Could you be more exact? Relevance How does that relate to the problem?

How does that bear on the question? How does that help us with the issue? Depth What factors make this difficult? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective?

Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways? Logic Does all of this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last one? Does what you say follow from the evidence? Significance Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? Fairness Is my thinking justifiable in context? Am I taking into account the thinking of others?

Is my purpose fair given the situation? Am I using my concepts in keeping with educated usage, or am I distorting them to get what I want? Why Focus on Critical Thinking? What is i2a?

Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework

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No matter what your circumstances or goals, the authors assure us of one thing: we will be better off if we are skilled thinkers. Critical thinking, they say, is the disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances; but to maximize the quality of your thinking, you have to make learning about thinking a priority. They present four recommendations which, when applied, result in a mind practicing skilled thinking. These include 'clarify your thinking' and 'question questions'. In the end, they say the best thinkers are those who understand the development of thinking as a process occurring throughout many years of practice. Jan 1,

Linda Elder - Critical thinking

By Dr. Fun Problem Solving Group Activities Linda Elder is currently an author, an educational psychologist and the president of the Foundation dedicated to Critical Thinking. It is best used in conjunction with the Analytic Thinking Guide. Richard Paul and Dr.

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Paul and Elder, The Paul-Elder framework has three components:. According to Paul and Elder , there are two essential dimensions of thinking that students need to master in order to learn how to upgrade their thinking.

Universal Intellectual Standards

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2 Response
  1. Norris C.

    to. Critical Thinking. CONCEPTS AND TOOLS. By Dr. Richard Paul and. Dr. Linda Elder. The Foundation for Critical Thinking katcompany.org ​

  2. ArcГЎngel E.

    These essential 27th International Conference on Critical Thinking Near University of California at Berkeley July 23 - 26, For more than 25 years, the Foundation For Critical Thinking has emphasized the importance of teaching for critical thinking in a strong, rather than a weak, sense.

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