File Name: anatomy and physiology of human respiratory system .zip
- Human Physiology/The respiratory system
- Human respiratory system
- Anatomy and Physiology: The Relationships of the Respiratory System
Human Physiology/The respiratory system
Human respiratory system , the system in humans that takes up oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The human gas-exchanging organ, the lung , is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. The lung provides the tissues of the human body with a continuous flow of oxygen and clears the blood of the gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide. Atmospheric air is pumped in and out regularly through a system of pipes, called conducting airways, which join the gas-exchange region with the outside of the body.
The airways can be divided into upper and lower airway systems. The transition between the two systems is located where the pathways of the respiratory and digestive systems cross, just at the top of the larynx. The upper airway system comprises the nose and the paranasal cavities or sinuses , the pharynx or throat , and partly also the oral cavity , since it may be used for breathing. The lower airway system consists of the larynx, the trachea , the stem bronchi, and all the airways ramifying intensively within the lungs, such as the intrapulmonary bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolar ducts.
For respiration, the collaboration of other organ systems is clearly essential. The diaphragm , as the main respiratory muscle, and the intercostal muscles of the chest wall play an essential role by generating, under the control of the central nervous system , the pumping action on the lung. The muscles expand and contract the internal space of the thorax, the bony framework of which is formed by the ribs and the thoracic vertebrae.
The contribution of the lung and chest wall ribs and muscles to respiration is described below in The mechanics of breathing. The blood, as a carrier for the gases, and the circulatory system i. The nose is the external protuberance of an internal space, the nasal cavity. It is subdivided into a left and right canal by a thin medial cartilaginous and bony wall, the nasal septum. Each canal opens to the face by a nostril and into the pharynx by the choana. The floor of the nasal cavity is formed by the palate , which also forms the roof of the oral cavity.
The complex shape of the nasal cavity is due to projections of bony ridges, the superior, middle, and inferior turbinate bones or conchae , from the lateral wall. The passageways thus formed below each ridge are called the superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses. On each side, the intranasal space communicates with a series of neighbouring air-filled cavities within the skull the paranasal sinuses and also, via the nasolacrimal duct , with the lacrimal apparatus in the corner of the eye.
The duct drains the lacrimal fluid into the nasal cavity. This fact explains why nasal respiration can be rapidly impaired or even impeded during weeping: the lacrimal fluid is not only overflowing into tears, it is also flooding the nasal cavity. The paranasal sinuses are sets of paired single or multiple cavities of variable size. Most of their development takes place after birth, and they reach their final size toward age The sinuses are located in four different skull bones—the maxilla, the frontal, the ethmoid, and the sphenoid bones.
Correspondingly, they are called the maxillary sinus , which is the largest cavity; the frontal sinus; the ethmoid sinuses ; and the sphenoid sinus , which is located in the upper posterior wall of the nasal cavity. The sinuses have two principal functions: because they are filled with air, they help keep the weight of the skull within reasonable limits, and they serve as resonance chambers for the human voice.
The nasal cavity with its adjacent spaces is lined by a respiratory mucosa. Typically, the mucosa of the nose contains mucus-secreting glands and venous plexuses; its top cell layer, the epithelium , consists principally of two cell types, ciliated and secreting cells. This structural design reflects the particular ancillary functions of the nose and of the upper airways in general with respect to respiration.
They clean, moisten, and warm the inspired air, preparing it for intimate contact with the delicate tissues of the gas-exchange area. During expiration through the nose, the air is dried and cooled, a process that saves water and energy. Two regions of the nasal cavity have a different lining. The vestibule , at the entrance of the nose, is lined by skin that bears short thick hairs called vibrissae.
In the roof of the nose, the olfactory bulb with its sensory epithelium checks the quality of the inspired air. About two dozen olfactory nerves convey the sensation of smell from the olfactory cells through the bony roof of the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. Human respiratory system Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents.
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Peter H. See Article History. The respiratory tract conveys air from the mouth and nose to the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the alveoli and the capillaries. Britannica Quiz. You may know that the human brain is composed of two halves, but what fraction of the human body is made up of blood? Test both halves of your mind in this human anatomy quiz. The lungs serve as the gas-exchanging organ for the process of respiration.
Sagittal view of the human nasal cavity. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.
Human respiratory system
The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system has many functions. Besides helping you inhale breathe in and exhale breathe out , it:. The respiratory system has many different parts that work together to help you breathe.
Place your hand over your chest, take a deep breath, and then let it out. Of course you already know that your lungs fill with air when you breathe, but did you know that your respiratory system does more than simply move oxygen into and out of your lungs? The structures of the respiratory system interact with structures of the skeletal, circulatory, and muscular systems to help you smell, speak, and move oxygen into your bloodstream and waste out of it. Image from Human Anatomy Atlas. Click here to explore the images from this blog post in 3D using Human Anatomy Atlas or later! The lungs are asymmetrical, conical in shape, and have a spongy texture. If you look in the image below, you'll see a treelike structure in each lung.
Human respiratory system , the system in humans that takes up oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The human gas-exchanging organ, the lung , is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. The lung provides the tissues of the human body with a continuous flow of oxygen and clears the blood of the gaseous waste product, carbon dioxide. Atmospheric air is pumped in and out regularly through a system of pipes, called conducting airways, which join the gas-exchange region with the outside of the body. The airways can be divided into upper and lower airway systems. The transition between the two systems is located where the pathways of the respiratory and digestive systems cross, just at the top of the larynx.
Anatomy and Physiology: The Relationships of the Respiratory System
Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia.
The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx , larynx , trachea , bronchi and lungs. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funnelled down into our lungs. There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air.
Morphology of the upper airways
Игла похищенного у медсестры шприца блеснула в темноте и погрузилась в вену чуть выше запястья Клушара. Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы. Сильный палец нажал на плунжер, вытолкнув синеватую жидкость в старческую вену. Клушар проснулся лишь на несколько секунд. Он успел бы вскрикнуть от боли, если бы сильная рука не зажала ему рот. Старик не мог даже пошевелиться.
Теперь рука была закинута за голову, следовательно, Хейл лежал на спине.