File Name: history and theory in anthropology alan barnard .zip
This bibliography of anthropology lists some notable publications in the field of anthropology , including its various subfields. It is not comprehensive and continues to be developed.
History and Theory in Anthropology
Diffusionism as an anthropological school of thought, was an attempt to understand the distribution of culture in terms of the origin of culture traits and their spread from one society to another. Versions of diffusionist thought included the conviction that all cultures originated from one culture center heliocentric diffusion ; the more reasonable view that cultures originated from a limited number of culture centers culture circles ; and finally the notion that each society is influenced by others but that the process of diffusion is both contingent and arbitrary Winthrop Diffusion may be simply defined as the spread of a cultural item from its place of origin to other places Titiev A more expanded definition depicts diffusion as the process by which discrete culture traits are transferred from one society to another, through migration, trade, war, or other contact Winthrop Diffusionist research originated in the middle of the nineteenth century as a means of understanding the nature of the distribution of human cultural traits across the world.
By that time scholars had begun to study not only advanced cultures, but also the cultures of nonliterate people Beals and Hoijer Two schools of thought emerged in response to these questions. The most extreme view was that there were a very limited number of locations, possibly only one, from which the most important culture traits diffused to the rest of the world.
According to social evolutionists, innovation in a culture, was considered to be continuous or at least triggered by variables that are relatively exogenous. This set the foundation for the idea that many inventions occurred independently of each other and that diffusion had relatively little effect on cultural development Hugill It generally avoided the trap of the Eurocentric notion of the few hearths or one hearth origination of most cultural traits.
The school of cultural geography combined idealism, environmentalism, and social structural explanations, which made the process of diffusion more feasible than the process of innovation Hugill Franz Boas argued that although the independent invention of a culture trait can occur at the same time within widely separated societies where there is limited control over individual members, allowing them freedom to create a unique style, a link such as genetic relationship is still suspected.
He felt this was especially true in societies where there were similar combinations of traits Boas Boas emphasized that culture traits should not be viewed casually, but in terms of a relatively unique historical process that proceeds from the first introduction of a trait until its origin becomes obscure. He sought to understand culture traits in terms of two historical processes, diffusion and modification.
Boas used these key concepts to explain culture and interpret the meaning of culture. He believed that the cultural inventory of a people was basically the cumulative result of diffusion. He viewed culture as consisting of countless loose threads, most of foreign origin, but which were woven together to fit into their new cultural context. Discrete elements become interrelated as time passes Hatch He agreed with British sociocultural anthropologists that human progress was often due to independent innovation, but his work on kinship terminology showed that diffusion occurred among geographically dispersed people Kuklick During the mid-twentieth century studies of acculturation and cultural patterning replaced diffusion as the focus of anthropological research.
Ethnological research conducted among Native American tribes, even though influenced by the diffusionist school of thought, approached the study of culture traits from a more holistic interpretation. Presently, the concept of diffusion has value in ethnological studies, but at best plays a secondary role in interpreting the processes of culture change Winthrop Recently there have been theoretical developments in anthropology among those seeking to explain contemporary processes of cultural globalization and transnational culture flows.
In all of these areas, except for history, research involves observing societies, how they can be influenced to innovate, and predicting the results of such innovation Hugill Diffusion is well documented in the business and industrial world. The creation of copyright and patent laws to protect individual innovations, point to the fact that borrowing ideas is a decidedly human practice. It is often easier to copy an invention, than to create a new invention.
Japanese business historians have been very interested in the role diffusion has played in the industrial development of Japan. Business historians give credit to the role diffusion has played in the development of industrial societies in the U. It is hard to justify the view that diffusion in preindustrial societies was any less prevalent than it is in the industrialized societies of today Hugill This type of change may be reciprocal, however, very often the process is asymmetrical and the result is the usually partial absorption of one culture into the other.
Kroeber believed that acculturation is gradual rather than abrupt. He connected the process of diffusion with the process of acculturation by considering that diffusion contributes to acculturation and that acculturation necessarily involves diffusion.
He did attempt to separate the two processes by stating that diffusion is a matter of what happens to the elements of a culture; whereas acculturation is a process of what happens to a whole culture Kroeber Acculturation, then, is the process of systematic cultural change of a particular society carried out by an alien, dominant society Winthrop This change is brought about under conditions of direct contact between individuals of each society Winthrop Individuals of a foreign or minority culture learn the language, habits, and values of a standard or dominant culture by the cultural process of acculturation.
The process by which these individuals enter the social positions, as well as acquire the political, economic, and educational standard,s of the dominant culture is called assimilation. Milton Gordon proposed that assimilation can be described as a series of stages through which an individual must pass. Although this proposal has been criticized, it does indicate that there is a continuum through which individuals pass, beginning with acculturation and ending with complete assimilation Gordon Complete assimilation is not the inevitable consequence of acculturation due to the value systems of the minority or weaker culture being a part of the entire configuration of culture.
It may not always be possible, nor desirable, for the minority culture to take over the complete way of life of the majority culture. Often a period of transition follows where the minority society increasingly loses faith in its own traditional values, but is unable to adopt the values of the dominant culture.
During this transition period there is a feeling of dysphoria, in which individuals in the minority society exhibit feelings of insecurity and unhappiness Titiev Acculturation and assimilation have most often been studied in European immigrants coming to the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as well as minority groups already living in the United States.
These studies have resulted in several important cross-cultural generalizations about the process of acculturation and assimilation Thompson This process is slowed down considerably when minorities are territorially or occupationally concentrated, such as in the case of large native minorities who often become ethnonationalistic.
Second , acculturation must precede assimilation. Third , even though a minority may be acculturated, assimilation is not always the end result. Fourth , acculturation and assimilation serve to homogenize the minority group into the dominant group.
The many factors facilitating or preventing this homogenization include the age of the individual, ethnic background, religious and political affiliations, and economic level Thompson During the latter part of the fifteenth century, European voyages of discovery resulted in contact with diverse cultures startlingly unlike those of Europe.
The resulting cross-cultural encounters provided the impetus for the development of concepts concerning the processes involved in cultural progress Davis and Mintz Actual diffusion research would not take place until the nineteenth century when some scholars attempted to understand the nature of culture and whether it spread to the rest of the world from few or many innovation centers. The concept of diffusion strengthened in its opposition to the more powerful concept of evolution, which proposed that all human beings possessed equal potential for inovation.
Evolutionism eventually became linked to the idea of independent invention and the related notion that contact between preindustrial cultures was minimal Hugill Acculturation : The most profound changes in a society result from direct, aggressive contact of one society with another.
There is hardly any modern society which has not felt the impact of this contact with very different societies. The process of the intermingling of cultures is called acculturation. Because the influence of Euro-American culture on nonliterate, relatively isolated groups has been so widespread and profound, the term acculturation is most commonly applied to contact and intermingling between these two cultures Titiev Acculturation studies evolved into assimilation studies during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries when great numbers of immigrants arrived in the United States.
Studies of the rate of assimilation of minority groups already living in the United States became another area of focus. The pursuit of explanations for why different groups assimilate at different rates have largely guided many acculturation and assimilation studies Thompson Franz Boas was born in Germany where he studied physics and geography.
In he worked among American Indian societies in British Columbia before his permanent move to America in This eventually lead to a professorship at Columbia University in which he held until his retirement in Lowie Boas was a pioneering anthropological field worker and based many of his concepts on experiences gained while working in the field.
He believed the cultural inventory of a people was cumulative and was the result of diffusion. Boas envisioned culture traits as being part of two historical processes, diffusion and modification Hatch The underlying reason for the expedition was the search for laws that govern the growth of human culture.
Interest in the Northwest Coast of the United States was based on the knowledge that the Old World and the New World came into close contact in this area. Migration along the coastline, because of favorable geographical conditions, could have facilitated a cultural exchange by diffusion between the Old and New Worlds Stocking He was involved in extensive research in Africa, which was made possible by donors and by his own income from books and lectures Barnard Fritz Graebner was a German anthropologist, who was a leading diffusionist thinker.
Two years later, he applied these concepts to cultures on a world-wide basis. Assisted by W. Thor Heyerdahl was a Norwegian adventurer best known for his attempts to sail across the oceans in replicas of water craft used by ancient peoples.
His goal was to prove that such people could have migrated across the oceans and that the ancient diffusion of culture traits could have spread from one group to another, even across formidable barriers of water Barnard Heyerdahl also studied the huge statues and numerous caves of Easter Island. Although he made some effort to become acquainted with the contemporary people in order to unlock many of the mysteries of the island Heyerdahl Introduction , most anthropologists seriously question the scientific validity of his speculations.
Kroeber was an early American student of Franz Boas. He helped establish the anthropology department at Berkeley as a prominent educational and research institution from which he conducted valuable research among the California Indians Barnard Using the culture areas proposed by Otis T.
Freidrich Ratzel was a German anthropologist who was a significant contributor to nineteenth-century theories of diffusion and migration. He developed criteria by which the formal, non-functional characteristics of objects could be compared, because it would be unlikely that these characteristics would have been simultaneously invented Barnard Ratzel warned that possible migration or other contact phenomena should be ruled out in each case before cross-cultural similarities were attributed to independent invention.
Tylor, a competing British cultural evolutionist Harris Rivers was a British doctor and psychiatrist who became interested in ethnology after he went on a Cambridge expedition to the Torres Straits in He later pursued research in India and Melanesia. His interest in kinship established him as a pioneer in the genealogical method and his background in psychiatry enabled him to do research in the area of sensory perception Barnard In , He was the first to speak out again evolutionism Harris Wilhelm Schmidt was a Catholic priest in Germany and an ethnologist who studied religions of the world and wrote extensively on their inter-relationships Barnard He proposed four major temporal phases: Primitive, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.
Elliot Smith was a prominent British anatomist who produced a most curious view of cultural distribution arguing that Egypt was the source of all higher culture.
He based this on the following assumptions: 1 man was uninventive, culture seldom arose independently, and culture only arose in certain circumstances; 2 these circumstances only existed in ancient Egypt, which was the location from which all culture, except for its simplest elements, had spread after the advent of navigation; 3 human history was full of decadence and the spread of this civilization was naturally diluted as it radiated outwardly Lowie Smith and W.
Perry, a student of W.
History and Theory in Anthropology
Buy now. Delivery included to Germany. Alan Barnard Paperback 15 Jun Check for new and used marketplace copies. Anthropology is a discipline very conscious of its history, and Alan Barnard has written a clear, balanced and judicious textbook that surveys the historical contexts of the great debates and traces the genealogies of theories and schools of thought.
Diffusionism as an anthropological school of thought, was an attempt to understand the distribution of culture in terms of the origin of culture traits and their spread from one society to another. Versions of diffusionist thought included the conviction that all cultures originated from one culture center heliocentric diffusion ; the more reasonable view that cultures originated from a limited number of culture centers culture circles ; and finally the notion that each society is influenced by others but that the process of diffusion is both contingent and arbitrary Winthrop Diffusion may be simply defined as the spread of a cultural item from its place of origin to other places Titiev A more expanded definition depicts diffusion as the process by which discrete culture traits are transferred from one society to another, through migration, trade, war, or other contact Winthrop Diffusionist research originated in the middle of the nineteenth century as a means of understanding the nature of the distribution of human cultural traits across the world. By that time scholars had begun to study not only advanced cultures, but also the cultures of nonliterate people Beals and Hoijer Two schools of thought emerged in response to these questions.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Barnard Published Sociology. List of figures List of tables Preface 1. Visions of anthropology 2. Precursors of the anthropological tradition 3.
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A concept of the hunter-gatherer similar to the one we possess today, and more specifically a concept of hunter-gatherer society, emerged during European Enlightenment. The existence of hunter-gatherer society was predicated on a theory of society in which economics became a defining attribute, and this came to be the case during the eighteenth century, especially in Scotland. In the Romantic period, interest in the hunter-gatherer as a category waned.
Даже его безукоризненный лотос беспомощен перед эскадрильей вертолетов Агентства национальной безопасности. Сьюзан - это единственное, что не позволит Стратмору меня уничтожить. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, волоча ее к лестнице, - уходи со. Клянусь, что я тебя пальцем не трону. Сьюзан пыталась вырваться из его рук, и он понял, что его ждут новые проблемы. Если даже он каким-то образом откроет лифт и спустится на нем вместе со Сьюзан, она попытается вырваться, как только они окажутся на улице.
Но Цифровая крепость никогда не устареет: благодаря функции меняющегося открытого текста она выдержит людскую атаку и не выдаст ключа. Новый стандарт шифрования. Отныне и навсегда. Шифры, которые невозможно взломать. Банкиры, брокеры, террористы, шпионы - один мир, один алгоритм.
К черту кодекс чести, - сказала она. - Посмотрим, чем ты тут занимаешься. Окинув быстрым взглядом находящееся за стеклом помещение шифровалки, Сьюзан включила кнопку яркости. Вспыхнувший экран был совершенно пуст. Несколько этим озадаченная, она вызвала команду поиска и напечатала: НАЙТИ: СЛЕДОПЫТ Это был дальний прицел, но если в компьютере Хейла найдутся следы ее программы, то они будут обнаружены.