Child Labour And Education In India Pdf

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Road, Kolkata , India. The issue of child labour is a frontline concern in India, as early entry into labour market at formative stage of life does mean absconding from proper schooling leading to loss of future scope of better livelihood, since the existing literature shows that there is wage premium for education in Indian labour market. In this perspective, this study aims to carry out a supply-side analysis towards examining the incidence and pattern of child labour and child schooling to test out regional and gender disparities, if any, in terms of these incidences. Socio-economic determinants across gender and region also have been identified for an everlasting way out of the crisis.

The Relationship between Education and Child Work

Road, Kolkata , India. The issue of child labour is a frontline concern in India, as early entry into labour market at formative stage of life does mean absconding from proper schooling leading to loss of future scope of better livelihood, since the existing literature shows that there is wage premium for education in Indian labour market.

In this perspective, this study aims to carry out a supply-side analysis towards examining the incidence and pattern of child labour and child schooling to test out regional and gender disparities, if any, in terms of these incidences. Socio-economic determinants across gender and region also have been identified for an everlasting way out of the crisis.

The pattern of child employment in a range of industries confirms the malfunctioning of lawful steps to save child labourers from mischief of occupational vulnerability.

It also reveals significant discrepancy in incidence of child labour both across region and gender, but for schooling choice no considerable regional gap is substantiated. The issue of child labour is closely related with human capital formation of a country as early entry in labour market leads to the refutation of normal childhood and absconding from proper schooling, implying a loss in future scope of better earning.

Global estimates of the International Labour Organisation ILO show that the incidence of child labour is very high in developing countries and statistics reveal that India is the highest in the world. So there is no doubt that in India the issue of child labour is a serious one.

Although there is a universal agreement that child labour is undesirable, there is a wide disagreement on how to tackle this problem. The formulation of policies that are effective in curbing child labour requires an analysis of its key determinants, that is, identification of variables that have a significant effect on child employment.

The rapidly expanding literature on child labour has focused attention not only on the qualitative features of child labour but also on the quantitative aspects taking advantage of the increasing availability of good quality data on child employment. The empirical literature on child labour has been shifted from mere quantification to an econometric analysis of its determinants. These studies demonstrate several factors contributing to the decision to send a child to work.

In this context, the objective of the proposed study is to examine the problem from supply side for suggesting some different kinds of policy prescriptions such that the parents themselves will withdraw their children from the labour market and then the market will eventually experience an equalization of wages for adult and child labour making a permanent solution to this problem.

Child labour, so long a cheaper substitute of adult labour, would have its demand in the market for unskilled work, and so trying to solve the problem from demand side needs legal interventions.

Studies show that though there are some laws to protect child labour, there is also evasion of those laws. Moreover, as children are less demanding, more obedient, and require lower pay, so it is very likely that demand for child labour will persist in some sectors.

Studies made by Trade Environment Development [ 7 ] find that in many cases there are government officials who personally benefit from child labour. Moreover, the upper caste people do not see anything wrong with using children of lower castes and classes as labour.

The study shows that 80 percent of the working children in India are the children of the Dalits, who are oppressed low caste or minority tribal people. The study made by Swaminathan [ 8 ] in western India reveals that children work at simple repetitive manual tasks that do not require long years of training or experience in low-paying hazardous works that involves drudgery and forecloses the option of school education for most children.

In developing countries, it is widely believed that poverty plays as a determining force for many children to work full time for their own and their families' survival.

Using data from Peru and Pakistan, Ray [ 3 ] tested two hypotheses that there is a positive association between hours of child labour and poverty and that there is a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Both of these hypotheses were confirmed by the Pakistani data, but not by the Peruvian data. Even though poverty is likely to be a major driving force towards child labour decision, there are some other potential factors influencing this decision.

The study made by Das and Mukherjee [ 5 ] addressed two broad issues in urban Indian context, namely, return to investment in education in job market; linkage between parental human capital and children outcomes in the household in terms of extent of schooling, tendency to drop out, and decision to work as child labour.

The study shows that there exists significant wage premium in Indian labour market. Major finding of this study establishes the linkage of parental education with child schooling and child work decisions in the family for urban boys. Similar findings were obtained in the study of Mukherjee and Das [ 6 ] for urban boys and girls too.

This is likely not only for economic reason but also because parents may have some noneconomic, that is, purely social inclination towards educating their children and this propensity would be contingent on the level of parental education.

In earlier works of Das and Mukherjee [ 5 ], and Mukherjee and Das [ 6 ], the issue of child labour was addressed only for urban Indian children. In these works, addressing the issue for rural Indian children was untouched.

But considering the wide regional variation in labour market characteristics as well as household characteristics, along with the reality, the issue is largely rural phenomena as large section of child labourers are from rural India , it is essential to work out for children from rural area. It is also needed to address the gender differentials in terms of pattern and incidence of labour type of activities of Indian children. As decisions regarding work and schooling are simultaneous and interdependent, it necessitates addressing child schooling as well.

It may be noted that when we are discussing about intrahousehold decisions on child schooling, we are basically talking about the demand for child education within the household. Discontinuation dropout of schooling can be considered as a key indicator of demand for child education within the household.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the data and methodological issues. Section 3 is presenting incidence of child labour in India.

Section 4 explores the determinants of child labour and child schooling in India. Lastly, Section 5 concludes. Unit level data of National Sample Survey NSS for 61st round on employment and unemployment have been used in the present study. The salient feature of this survey is that the survey period is divided into four sub-rounds, each with duration of three months to capture the seasonal effect on employment opportunity.

At the all-India level, a total number of villages and urban blocks are allocated for the survey. The ultimate stage units are households at the subsequent stage. The number of households surveyed was 79, in rural areas and 45, in urban areas.

It will include temporary stay-away but exclude temporary visitors and guests. Household income is highly related to employment characteristics and underlying earnings of the household members.

As it is difficult to collect reliable income data, the NSSO collects data on consumption expenditure in its surveys and works out monthly per capita consumer expenditure for each sample household, which is expected to serve as a close proxy for income.

Briefly, economic activity covers all market production paid work and certain types of nonmarket production unpaid work , including production of goods for own use. Therefore, whether paid or unpaid, the activity or occupation could be in the formal or informal sector and in urban or rural areas ILO, [ 11 ]. Children in 5—9 years age group, engaged in any economic activity, are defined as child labourers.

NSS does not provide hourly data and classify work status depending upon the major time criterion. It defines usual principal activity status of a person as one on which a person spent relatively longer time during the days preceding the date of survey.

In this study, only those children have been considered as child labourers those are doing economic activities in usual principal activity status. Dropout child has been defined as who ever attended but discontinued studies to supplement household income or any other reason.

Based on the discussion made above probit model has been estimated separately for child labour and drop out decisions. As these decisions are not observable latent variables , so two observable dummies have been defined as following:.

The regression equation has been estimated separately for each region and each sex. To check the effect of i difference in region; and ii difference in gender, on decisions of child employment and dropout two qualitative variables have been included in the form of two dummy variables as follows:.

H 1 A : there is no regional difference in terms of incidence of child labour and dropout i. H 1 B : there is no gender difference in terms of incidence of child labour and dropout i. Child labour does mean absconding from proper schooling. It is evidenced from Table 1. It is distinctly clear from Table 1 that the dropout phenomenon sharply increases with level of education. This is surprising because the incentive for staying in school for a substantial number of years is quite strong in Indian labour market Das and Mukherjee, [ 5 ].

The education premium is present in the child labour market too, in a weaker sense. It can also be noted that incidence of dropout is more pronounced among urban children between primary and middle levels of education. It is possible due to diverse job opportunities in urban labour market, pulling more children to job market at the cost of education. Table 2 depicts the rates of incidence of child labour in India across region and sex for two common age groups, 5—9 years and 10—14 years separately.

The incidence rates are uniformly lower for the younger cohort than the older one. The range of values for I L varies from 0. It can be noted that the girl children are less involved in wage economic activity, and hence they show up less in the labour L status. Consequently, incidence of child labour is higher for boys. Incidence of child labour in rural area is much higher than that of urban area.

This prompts to test if there are significant regional and gender differences affecting schooling and child labour decisions. Testing hypotheses have been formulated accordingly, as described in Section 2.

The pattern of child employment in various industries is well evident from Table 3. It clearly shows the sectors, those are engaging the children in labour market at too early age. A large number of children are engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing in rural sector, while in urban, manufacturing and trade are two major sectors of child employment.

In the rural, children are also working in a significant percentage in manufacturing of tobacco products; spinning, weaving, and finishing of textiles; nonspecialized retail trading stores, and so forth. Very few of them are also engaged in mining and quarrying sector. On the other hand, in urban, they are engaged largely in enterprises, like manufacturing of tobacco products, manufacturing of textiles, retail trade, hotels, and restaurants.

More precisely, boys are employed in manufacturing of food products and beverages, manufacturing of wearing apparel, dressing and dying of fur, tanning and dressing of leather goods, manufacturing of textiles, and so forth.

A moderately high percentage about 11 per cent is working in hotels and restaurants. Girls are employed in manufacturing of carpet and rugs other than by hand as well as blankets, shawls, embroidery work, and making of ornamental trimmings by hand. It indicates a varying pattern in child employment across sex and region implying the need of gender and region specific policy intervention for proper eradication of the problem.

Child Labour Act in outlaws child labour in hazardous occupations. But after twenty-five years of enactment of this act, about 10 per cent of male child labourers in rural sector and 21 per cent in urban sector are still occupied in hazardous occupations. The identification of hazardous work was due to the list of state prohibited occupations prepared by the New York State Department of Labour [ 13 ].

Effort was to make an exact matching of these listed occupations with those of 5-digit National Industrial Classifications in [ 14 ], prepared by the Central Statistical Organization of India. In few cases, some subjective decisions were inevitable. The list of hazardous industries is provided in the appendix.

Although there are laws to protect child labourers, still children are employed in hazardous industries, both in rural and urban areas. Not only boys are employed in these occupations, but even girls are employed too. In rural, children are occupied in hazardous industries, like manufacturing of nonmetallic mineral products, manufacturing of fabricated metal products, building of complete constructions or parts thereof, and nonscheduled passenger-land-transport like man or animal drawn vehicles.

Girl child labourers about 5 per cent are also found to be engaged in nonmetallic mineral products, building of complete constructions, and in domestic duties in other than own houses.

The Relationship between Education and Child Work

According to data from Census , the number of child labourers in India is A total of million children — 64 million girls and 88 million boys — are estimated to be in child labour globally, accounting for almost one in ten of all children worldwide. Despite rates of child labour declining over the last few years, children are still being used in some severe forms of child labour such as bonded labour, child soldiers, and trafficking. Across India child labourers can be found in a variety of industries: in brick kilns, carpet weaving, garment making, domestic service, food and refreshment services such as tea stalls , agriculture, fisheries and mining. Children are also at risk of various other forms of exploitation including sexual exploitation and production of child pornography, including online.


forecloses the option of school education for most children. In developing countries, it is widely believed that poverty. plays as a determining force.


The Relationship between Education and Child Work

Children are future citizens of the Nation and their adequate development is utmost priority of the country. Unfortunately, child labor engulfs children across the world. The world is home to 1. However, despite its menace in various forms, the data shows variation in prevalence of child labor across the globe and the statistical figures about child labor are very alarming. There are an estimated million child laborers worldwide.

Как глупо с моей стороны.

Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни. - Нет.  - Он усмехнулся.

У них всегда все было в полном порядке. - Все когда-то бывает в первый раз, - бесстрастно ответил Бринкерхофф.

Наконец Стратмор поднял усталые глаза на Сьюзан. Выражение его лица тут же смягчилось. - Сьюзан, извини. Это кошмар наяву.

5 Response
  1. Lioufalballpost1982

    Child labour British English or child labor American English ; see spelling differences refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

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    Child Labour and Education in India. Dr. Ch. Ramana Rao Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, katcompany.orge,. Vizianagaram, A.P. India.

  4. Gatbiklcifi

    Request PDF | Child Labour Education and Nutrition in Rural India | Decisions concerning child labour, education and nutrition are taken by.

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