File Name: government accountability and corruption as a global soietal problem .zip
- Combating Corruption and Promoting Good Governance
- Transparency to curb corruption? Concepts, measures and empirical merit
- Transparent Governance & Anti-Corruption
Policymakers and researchers often cite the importance of government transparency for strengthening accountability, reducing corruption, and enhancing good governance. Yet despite the prevalence of such claims, definitional precision is lacking. As a consequence, approaches to measurement have often cast a wide net, in many cases tapping into the capacity of government institutions more generally, resulting in empirical findings that are ambiguous in terms of interpretation.
Combating Corruption and Promoting Good Governance
Corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal offense undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, to acquire illicit benefit or abuse power for one's private gain. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement , though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies , oligarchies , narco-states and mafia states. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.
Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime. Strategies to counter corruption are often summarized under the umbrella term anti-corruption. Additionally, global initiative like the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 16 also has a target to substantially reduce corruption of all forms. Stephen D. Morris,  a professor of politics, wrote that political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest.
Economist Ian Senior defined corruption as an action to secretly provide a good or a service to a third party so that he or she can influence certain actions which benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both in which the corrupt agent has authority. The effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit.
Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people petty corruption ,  to corruption that affects the government on a large scale grand corruption , and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. A number of indicators and tools have been developed which can measure different forms of corruption with increasing accuracy;   but when those are impractical, one study suggests looking at bodyfat as a rough guide after finding that obesity of cabinet ministers in post-Soviet states was highly correlated with more accurate measures of corruption.
Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards,   and many other private and government sectors. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption.
The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative, executive and judicial branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another. Systemic corruption or endemic corruption  is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process.
It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives , discretionary powers ; monopolistic powers ; lack of transparency ; low pay; and a culture of impunity. Corruption has been a major issue in China, where society depends heavily on personal relationships.
By the late 20th century that combined with the new lust for wealth, produced escalating corruption. Historian Keith Schoppa says that bribery was only one of the tools of Chinese corruption, which also included, "embezzlement, nepotism, smuggling, extortion, cronyism, kickbacks, deception, fraud, squandering public monies, illegal business transactions, stock manipulation and real estate fraud.
Per R. Klitgaard  corruption will occur if the corrupt gain is greater than the penalty multiplied by the likelihood of being caught and prosecuted:. Klitgaard has also coined a metaphorical formula to illustrate how the amount of corruption depends on three variables: monopoly M on the supply of a good or service, the discretion D enjoyed by suppliers, and the supplier's accountability and transparency A to others.
The amount of corruption C could be expressed as:  : Since a high degree of monopoly and discretion accompanied by a low degree of transparency does not automatically lead to corruption, a fourth variable of "morality" or "integrity" has been introduced by others. The moral dimension has an intrinsic component and refers to a "mentality problem", and an extrinsic component referring to circumstances like poverty, inadequate remuneration, inappropriate work conditions and inoperable or over-complicated procedures which demoralize people and let them search for "alternative" solutions.
According to a survey study, the following factors have been attributed as causes of corruption: . It has been noted that in a comparison of the most corrupt with the least corrupt countries, the former group contains nations with huge socio-economic inequalities, and the latter contains nations with a high degree of social and economic justice.
Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs especially in public sector.
However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public owner to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control. Therefore, the owners' investors' or sponsors' profits are largely decisive.
Public corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts, grants, and hiring.
Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions elected officials or bureaucrats can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face.
Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. It can also take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money.
The political act of graft American English , is a well known and now global form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous and illegal use of a politician's authority for personal gain, when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to illegally private interests of the corrupted individual s and their cronies. In some cases government institutions are "repurposed" or shifted away from their official mandate to serve other, often corrupt purposes.
The Kaunas golden toilet case was a major Lithuanian scandal. It was to also require 5, litai 1, euros in monthly maintenance costs. Despite the investment, the "Golden Toilet" remained closed for years due to the dysfunctionality and was a subject of a lengthy anti-corruption investigation into those who had created it and  the local municipality even considered demolishing the building at one point. Various sources acclaim the Spanish People's Party — Partido Popular -, to be Europe's most corrupt party, with about yearly 45 billion euro worth of corruption.
On 7 July , Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , a global think tank, released a report claiming the Emirati city, Dubai , of being an enabler of global corruption, crime and illicit financial flows.
It stated that the global corrupt and criminal actors either operated through or from Dubai. The city was also called a haven for trade-based money laundering , as it gives space to free trade zones, with minimal regulatory laws and customs enforcement.
Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, personal gain, career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing or selectively pursuing an investigation or arrest or aspects of the " thin blue line " itself where force members collude in lies to protect other members from accountability. One common form of police corruption is soliciting or accepting bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities.
In America another common form of police corruption, is when white supremacist groups, such as Neo-Nazi Skinheads or the Ku Klux Klan , recruit members of law enforcement into their ranks or encourage their members to join local police departments to repress minorities and covertly promote white supremacy. More rarely, police officers may deliberately and systematically participate in organized crime themselves.
In most major cities, there are internal affairs sections to investigate suspected police corruption or misconduct. Judicial corruption refers to corruption-related misconduct of judges , through receiving or giving bribes, improper sentencing of convicted criminals, bias in the hearing and judgement of arguments and other such misconduct.
Judicial corruption can also be conducted by prosecutors and defense attorneys. An example of prosecutorial misconduct , would be a politician or a crime boss bribing a prosecutor to open investigations and file charges against an opposing politician or a rival crime boss, in order to hurt the competition. Governmental corruption of judiciary is broadly known in many transitional and developing countries because the budget is almost completely controlled by the executive.
The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject to the constitutional economics. It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the government through budget planning and various privileges , and the private.
Military corruption refers to the abuse of power by members in the armed forces, in order for career advancement or for personal gain by a soldier or soldiers. One form of military corruption in the United States Armed Forces , is a military soldier being promoted in rank or being given better treatment than their colleagues by their officers, due to their race , sexual orientation , ethnicity , gender , religious beliefs , social class or personal relationships with higher-ranking officers in spite of their merit.
Another example of military corruption, is a military officer or officers using the power of their positions to commit activities that are illegal, such as skimming logistical supplies such as food, medicine, fuel, body armor or weapons to sell on the local black market.
Corruption, the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, as defined by Transparency International  is systemic in the health sector. The characteristics of health systems with their concentrated supply of a service, high discretionary power of its members controlling the supply, and low accountability to others are the exact constellation of the variables described by Klitgaard, on which corruption depends.
Corruption in health care is more dangerous than in any other sector, because it affects health outcomes and is literally deadly. In , Transparency International has described the 6 most common ways of service corruption as follows: absenteeism , informal payments from patients, embezzlement, inflating services and the costs of services, favouritism and manipulation of data billing for goods and services that were never sent or done.
In criminology , corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation i. Some negative behaviours by corporations may not be criminal; laws vary between jurisdictions.
For example, some jurisdictions allow insider trading. The company's name translates to Brazilian Petroleum Corporation — Petrobras. The company was ranked No. Odebrecht is a privately held Brazilian conglomerate consisting of businesses in the fields of engineering, real estate , construction, chemicals and petrochemicals.
In , the firm's executives were examined during Operation Car Wash part of an investigation over Odebrecht Organization bribes to executives of Petrobras, in exchange for contracts and influence. Corruption in education is a worldwide phenomenon. Corruption in admissions to universities is traditionally considered as one of the most corrupt areas of the education sector.
Vouchers for university entrants have never materialized. Endemic corruption in educational institutions leads to the formation of sustainable corrupt hierarchies.
The general public is well aware of the high level of corruption in colleges and universities, including thanks to the media. In many societies and international organizations, education corruption remains a taboo. In some countries, such as certain eastern European countries, some Balkan countries and certain Asian countries, corruption occurs frequently in universities.
For decades, the Teamsters had been substantially controlled by La Cosa Nostra. Since , four of eight Teamster presidents were indicted, yet the union continued to be controlled by organized crime elements. The federal government has been successful at removing the criminal influence from this 1. The history of religion includes numerous examples of religious leaders calling attention to corruption in the religious practices and institutions of their time.
Jewish prophets Isaiah and Amos berate the rabbinical establishment of Ancient Judea for failing to live up to the ideals of the Torah. In , Martin Luther accuses the Catholic Church of widespread corruption, including selling of indulgences. In , Princeton University professor Kevin M.
Kruse advances the thesis that business leaders in the s and s collaborated with clergymen, including James W. Fifield Jr. He distinguished the corrupt "university" philosophers, whose "real concern is to earn with credit an honest livelihood for themselves and Arms smugglers, who are already into arms trafficking may work for them on the ground or with shipment. The money is often laundered and records are often destroyed.
In Transparency International ranked Angola a lowly out of countries in the Corruption Perception Index just after Venezuela and before the Republic of the Congo with a 2.
While its score for political stability improved to The score for corruption declined from an extremely low 6. The country is regarded poorly and that corruption is wounding the economy badly despite the emerging oil industries wealth.
The Mitterrand—Pasqua affair , also known informally as Angolagate , was an international political scandal over the secret and illegal sale and shipment of arms from the nations of Central Europe to the government of Angola by the Government of France in the s.
Transparency to curb corruption? Concepts, measures and empirical merit
The United States believes addressing corruption begins with countries around the world sharing a common vision and a strong commitment to taking effective, practical steps to prevent and prosecute corruption. To turn talk into action, the United States directly engages other countries, promotes internationally recognized standards, sponsors reform programming, and contributes to building the architecture for cross-border cooperation. To sustain this effort, INL engages in high-level diplomacy and reinforces the important role played by civil society, the media, and the business community. UNCAC covers all aspects of combating corruption, and with over States parties, it is nearly universal. To ensure countries take their commitments seriously, INL is on-the-ground, strengthening the ability of governments and their citizens to promote better public transparency, accountability, and integrity. In a global environment, INL also works with regional and international bodies to bring law enforcement officials together to build networks for cross-border collaboration on cases, compare notes on good practices, and build capacity. INL coordinates special visa legal authorities that can bar entry of the corrupt and their families to the United States and deny access to American resources.
Erwann Sabai and Dr. Chirok Han from University of Auckland for their valuable comments and to the following people: Dr. Shahid M. Alam of Northeastern University, Boston, for their intuitive comments; and Ms. However, the authors are responsible for any errors or omissions, which are of course unintended. Using panel data from the International Country Risk Guide corruption index, institutional quality and political stability indices and several state variables for developed and developing countries, this paper explores the linear quadratic empirical relationship between corruption and economic growth.
Transparency is the principle of allowing those affected by administrative decisions to know about results and about the process that led to decisions. Transparency is the principle of allowing those affected by administrative decisions to know about the resulting facts and figures e. Availability of information on government policies and actions, a clear sense of organizational responsibility, and an assurance that governments are efficiently administered and free of systemic corruption are important components of transparent governance. Transparency is a fundamental element of abolishing corruption. Transparent governance is important to local governments and the communities they serve because corruption threatens good governance, leads to the misallocation of resources, harms public and private sector development, and distorts public policy. Controlling corruption is only possible when government, citizens, and the private sector cooperate to ensure transparency. ICMA has worked with local governments and counterpart associations around the world to promote improved local government transparency and accountability.
Transparent Governance & Anti-Corruption
Metrics details. Corruption is recognized by the global community as a threat to development generally and to achieving health goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3: ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. As such, international organizations such as the World Health Organizations and the United Nations Development Program are creating an evidence base on how best to address corruption in health systems.
Good governance is the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. The true test of 'good' governance is the degree to which it delivers on the promise of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights.
The new coronavirus pandemic is not only wreaking destruction on public health and the global economy but disrupting democracy and governance worldwide. It has hit at a time when democracy was already under threat in many places, and it risks exacerbating democratic backsliding and authoritarian consolidation. Already, some governments have used the pandemic to expand executive power and restrict individual rights. Yet such actions are just the tip of the iceberg. The coronavirus will likely transform other pillars of democratic governance—such as electoral processes, civilian control of militaries, and civic mobilization—and potentially reset the terms of the global debate on the merits of authoritarianism versus democracy.
Political corruption or Malpolitics is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery , lobbying , extortion , cronyism , nepotism , parochialism , patronage , influence peddling , graft , and embezzlement. Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking , money laundering , and human trafficking , though it is not restricted to these activities. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality , is also considered political corruption. Over time, corruption has been defined differently. For example, in a simple context, while performing work for a government or as a representative, it is unethical to accept a gift. Any free gift could be construed as a scheme to lure the recipient towards some biases.