Environmental Pollution In China Status And Trends Pdf

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Consequently, air pollution in China predominantly consists of coal smoke, with suspended particulate matter PM and sulfur dioxide SO 2 as the principal air pollutants.

Environment and Health in China: Challenges and Opportunities

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. China has experienced rapid economic growth 7 to 8 percent of gross domestic product [GDP] per year since the mids. This rapid growth in such a short period of time has not only led to a remarkable increase in material wealth and a higher standard of living, but has also caused severe environmental pollution, particularly atmospheric pollution He et al. The problem was first observed in the s with industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide SO 2 and total suspended particulates TSP. In the s, acid rain was detected in major cities in the southern part of the country Feng et al.

This article is divided into two parts: first, it introduces the most important changes, problems and advances during this transition, including a brief explanation of the policy mechanisms. Second, it illustrates how research in the area of Science and Technology Studies STS can bring about new ways to understand the problems of the knowledge-policy and public engagement of air pollution in China. This manuscript was reviewed by two anonymous referees. During more than three decades, continued economic growth has been accomplished at the expense of an excessive use of energy that has placed an enormous burden on the ecological system Fang et al. Large reforms on the modernization of environmental protection institutions, the standards to control pollutants, and the work on legal framework, among others, have expressed the will of the central government to advance in the prevention and control of air pollution PCAP. However, little attention has been placed on how knowledge about air pollution is transformed to policy, and how different communities interact in the governance process.

With the rapid economic development, the serious air pollution in Beijing attracts increasing attention in the last decade. Seen as one whole complex and grey system, the causal relationship between the social development and the air pollution in Beijing has been quantitatively analyzed in this paper. By using the grey relational model, the aim of this study is to explore how the socio-economic and human activities affect on the air pollution in the city of Beijing, China. Four air pollutants, as the particulate matter with size 2. Additionally, fifteen socio-economic indicators are selected to account for the regional socio-economic characteristics economy variables, energy consumption variables, pollution emissions variables, environment and construction activity variables. The results highlight that all variables are associated with the concentrations of the four selected air pollutants, but with notable differences between the air pollutants. Most of the socio-economic indicators, such as industrial output, total energy consumption are highly correlated with PM 2.

Air pollution and its control in China

High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides SO 2 , nitrogen oxides NO x , and fine particulates. Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country. This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles, and investigates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.

But this success comes at the cost of deterioration of the environment. In Chinese cities, outdoor air pollution is the biggest environmental challenge for public health. The source of air pollution in Chinese cities has gradually changed from conventional coal combustion to a mixture of coal-combustion and motor-vehicle emissions. Many studies have documented the adverse health effects of outdoor air pollution in China, including increases in respiratory symptoms, hospitalization, and premature mortality Chen et al. The World Health Organization WHO estimated that outdoor air pollution was associated with approximately , premature deaths per year in China Cohen et al. In rural areas of China, coal and biomass fuels are still widely used in stoves and produce substantial indoor air pollution.

China’s Environmental Crisis

Since Prime Minister Li Keqiang declared war against air pollution in March , five years have passed. Last year, reports were coming out spreading good news. For example, concentrations of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2. Awareness about air pollution has also skyrocketed, so much so that no Chinese would likely tell me that the air pollution we see in the sky is just fog, as they used to in when I first visited Beijing.

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Когда улица сделала поворот, Беккер вдруг увидел прямо перед собой собор и вздымающуюся ввысь Гиральду. Звон колоколов оглушал, эхо многократно отражалось от высоких стен, окружающих площадь.

National Air Quality: Status and Trends of Key Air Pollutants

Посмотри. Бринкерхофф растерянно постоял минутку, затем подбежал к окну и встал рядом с Мидж. Та показала ему последние строчки текста. Бринкерхофф читал, не веря своим глазам.

 Ты не сделаешь ничего подобного! - оборвал его Стратмор.  - Этим ты лишь усугубишь свое положе… - Он не договорил и произнес в трубку: - Безопасность. Говорит коммандер Тревор Стратмор.

Influence of Social-economic Activities on Air Pollutants in Beijing, China

Со временем им заинтересовались университеты, а вскоре после этого появились и коммерческие серверы. Шлюзы открылись - в Интернет хлынула публика. К началу 1990-х годов некогда тщательно охраняемый правительством Интернет превратился в перенаселенное пространство, заполненное общедоступными почтовыми серверами и порнографическими сайтами. Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной. По предложению министерства обороны президент подписал тайное распоряжение о создании новой, абсолютно безопасной правительственной сети, которая должна была заменить скомпрометировавший себя Интернет и стать средством связи разведывательных агентств США.

Health Impact of Outdoor Air Pollution in China: Current Knowledge and Future Research Needs

 Ты лжешь. У меня есть доказательство! - Сьюзан встала и подошла к терминалам.  - Помнишь, как ты отключил Следопыта? - спросила она, подойдя к своему терминалу.  - Я снова его запустила. Посмотрим, вернулся ли .

The short-term impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on urban air pollution in China
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