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- The Priority of Chinese Inventions.
- The Four Great Inventions of Ancient China
- Thirty Great Inventions of China
- 16 Significant Science and Tech Discoveries Ancient India Gave the World
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The Priority of Chinese Inventions.
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They are a very ingenious people, and, in past times having invented many valuable implements, it has always seemed to them a fair hypothesis that as every machine is an improvement on something that preceded it, the machinery and telescopes of the West may have originated at first in something Chinese.
Not only is this the case in mathematics, but the Chinese say that our telescopes, steam-engines, firearms, and cannons are owing to them. Ever since China first saw steamers, fifty years ago, and since she came to know of the existence of European mathematics three hundred years ago, she has, from time to time, with more or less eagerness shown herself bent on claiming that the knowledge and skill shown in the West began in the first place with China.
Mei-wen-ting, a great Chinese scholar, who died at an advanced age in the year , after considering the whole question from the Chinese point of view, came to the conclusion that Europeans had got their mathematics and science from China.
In the same book are to be found, he says, the properties of a right-angled triangle, as, for instance, that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Since this is a fundamental problem, Mei-wen-ting claims that Western geometrical and trigonometrical knowledge is due to China.
He accounts for the spread of Chinese astronomy to us by the scattering of the schools of astronomy in China, which, according to Szu-ma-chien, an historian who wrote a century before the Christian era, took place about B. The fugitive astronomers, flying from the tyranny of the early Chow dynasty, diffused Chinese learning amongst the barbarians. Similarly in other matters the Chinese claim that the metaphysics of Indian Buddhism are due to the journey of Lao-tse to the West.
As to the Chinese having always had enlightened views on many scientific and political subjects, we may frankly admit it. They speak years ago of concave and convex mirrors being able to magnify objects. Four thousand years ago they had instruments for observing the stars.
In the year A. With the proviso that they may have derived some of their early knowledge in these things and in others, such as the manufacture of fireworks, from foreign countries, these and many like facts we may allow. But we would be glad for them to study the history of Western inventions, and show a willingness to recognize the ingenuity, knowledge, and intellectual power of other nations wherever they are found.
Let them also enter on a rivalry in inventions. Let them make new discoveries and advance in the arts in new ways such as may ba of benefit in the world. The Western nations will not be slow to acknowledge any efficient aid they may give in science, politics, or the arts. Reprints and Permissions.
The Priority of Chinese Inventions.. Nature 40, — Download citation. Issue Date : 13 June By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.
Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. The Priority of Chinese Inventions. Download PDF. Abstract A WRITER in the North China Herald of Shanghai, referring to the Chinese claims to have originated many modern Western scientific inventions, says that Chinese patriotism has exhibited itself in an ardent desire to claim priority over Europeans in this respect.
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The Four Great Inventions of Ancient China
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The book presents thirty great Chinese inventions, both ancient and modern, which are original, distinct, have made outstanding contributions and had extensive influence in China and around the globe. It also clarifies the misunderstandings and provides a clear definition and classification of the evaluation criteria for great inventions. Each invention is presented with color pictures and comprehensive discussions. His hometown is Wuxi, Jiangsu. In , he graduated from Tsinghua University majored in Mechanical Engineering.
O ne of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Indian civilization has a strong tradition of science and technology. Ancient India was a land of sages and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. While some of these groundbreaking contributions have been acknowledged, some are still unknown to most. In this system, each symbol received a value of position as well as an absolute value. Due to the simplicity of the decimal notation, which facilitated calculation, this system made the uses of arithmetic in practical inventions much faster and easier.
Thirty Great Inventions of China
The s saw huge leaps in physics, genetics, archaeology and technology. Here is our pick of the best. The particle helps explain why all other particles in the universe have mass, and its discovery completed the standard model of particle physics.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany.
16 Significant Science and Tech Discoveries Ancient India Gave the World
Joseph Needham — and is widely accepted by Chinese historians. When these technologies were introduced to the Western countries through various channels, they substantially revolutionized world civilization. Before the emergence of the printing technique, manuscripts were all handwritten by scholars.
Four Great Inventions of Ancient China China held the world's leading position in many fields in the study of nature, from the 1st century before Christ to the 15th century, with the four great inventions having the greatest global significance. Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and the compass - the four great inventions of ancient China-are significant contributions of the Chinese nation to world civilization. Before its invention, words were written on various natural materials by ancient peoples-on grass stalks by the Egyptians, on earthen plates by the Mesopotamians, on tree leaves by the Indians, on sheepskin by the Europeans and strangest of all, even inscribed on bamboo or wooden strips, tortoise shells or shoulder blades of an ox by the early Chinese. Later, inspired by the process of silk reeling, the people in ancient China succeeded in first making a kind of paper called "bo" out of silk. But its production was very expensive due to the scarcity of materials. In the early days of the 2nd century, a court official named Cai Lun produced a new kind of paper from bark, rags, wheat stalks and other materials. It was relatively cheap, light, thin, durable and more suitable for brush writing.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences , engineering , medicine , military technology , mathematics , geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus , the sundial , and the Kongming lantern. The Tang dynasty AD — in particular was a time of great innovation. The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China, and knowledge of Chinese technology was brought to Europe. Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham.
From Millet Agriculture to Artemisinin
China has been the source of many innovations , scientific discoveries and inventions. The list below contains these and other inventions in China attested by archaeological or historical evidence. The historical region now known as China experienced a history involving mechanics , hydraulics and mathematics applied to horology , metallurgy , astronomy , agriculture , engineering , music theory , craftsmanship , naval architecture and warfare. By the Warring States period — BC , inhabitants of the Warring States had advanced metallurgic technology, including the blast furnace and cupola furnace , while the finery forge and puddling process were known by the Han Dynasty BC—AD A sophisticated economic system in imperial China gave birth to inventions such as paper money during the Song Dynasty — The invention of gunpowder during the mid 9th century led to an array of inventions such as the fire lance , land mine , naval mine , hand cannon , exploding cannonballs, multistage rocket and rocket bombs with aerodynamic wings and explosive payloads.
Но он несколько опоздал. Сьюзан хотела что-то сказать, но ее опередил Джабба: - Значит, Танкадо придумал шифр-убийцу. - Он перевел взгляд на экран. Все повернулись вслед за. - Шифр-убийца? - переспросил Бринкерхофф. Джабба кивнул: - Да.
Беккер вытащил из вазы, стоявшей на столике в центре комнаты, розу и небрежно поднес ее к носу, потом резко повернулся к немцу, выпустив розу из рук.
- Во-первых, у нас есть фильтр, именуемый Сквозь строй, - он не пропустит ни один вирус. Во-вторых, если вырубилось электричество, то это проблема электрооборудования, а не компьютерных программ: вирусы не отключают питание, они охотятся за программами и информацией. Если там и произошло что-то неприятное, то дело не в вирусах. Молчание.
Хиросима, 6 августа 1945 года, 8. 15 утра. Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы. С этим Танкадо сумел примириться.
La Vespa. - Cinquanta mille.