Lean Six Sigma Tools And Techniques Pdf

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If you are planning to take a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt exam and researched internet and realized that Six Sigma certification training courses are too pricey and study materials are not within your budget either, then here is a Solution. Good Luck!

continuous improvement tools pdf

It was introduced by American engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in A six sigma process is one in which Six Sigma strategies seek to improve the quality of the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing impact variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical , statistical methods , and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods.

Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: 1. The term Six Sigma capitalized because it was written that way when registered as a Motorola trademark on December 28, originated from terminology associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes.

The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates—specifically, to within how many standard deviations of a normal distribution the fraction of defect-free outcomes corresponds.

Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing. The term "six sigma" comes from statistics and is used in statistical quality control , which evaluates process capability. Originally, it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. Processes that operate with "six sigma quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.

The 3. Mikel J. This figure is based on the tolerance in the height of a stack of discs. Organizations need to determine an appropriate sigma level for each of their most important processes and strive to achieve these. As a result of this goal, it is incumbent on management of the organization to prioritize areas of improvement.

Service Mark 1,, In recent years [update] , some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to create a methodology named Lean Six Sigma. Lean management and Six Sigma are two concepts which share similar methodologies and tools.

Both programs are Japanese -influenced, but they are two different programs. Lean management is focused on eliminating waste using a set of proven standardized tools and methodologies that target organizational efficiencies while integrating a performance improvement system utilized by everyone, while Six Sigma's focus is on eliminating defects and reducing variation. Both systems are driven by data, though Six Sigma is much more dependent on accurate data.

Some organizations add a R ecognize step at the beginning, which is to recognize the right problem to work on, thus yielding an RDMAIC methodology. The following table shows an overview of the main methods used. One key innovation of Six Sigma involves the absolute "professionalizing" of quality management functions. Prior to Six Sigma, quality management in practice was largely relegated to the production floor and to statisticians in a separate quality department.

Formal Six Sigma programs adopt a kind of elite ranking terminology similar to some martial arts systems, like judo to define a hierarchy and special career path that includes all business functions and levels. Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. According to proponents of the system, special training is needed [13] for all of these practitioners to ensure that they follow the methodology and use the data-driven approach correctly.

Some organizations use additional belt colours, such as Yellow Belts , for employees that have basic training in Six Sigma tools and generally participate in projects and "White belts" for those locally trained in the concepts but do not participate in the project team. General Electric and Motorola developed certification programs as part of their Six Sigma implementation, verifying individuals' command of the Six Sigma methods at the relevant skill level Green Belt, Black Belt etc.

Following this approach, many organizations in the s started offering Six Sigma certifications to their employees. The term "six sigma process" comes from the notion that if one has six standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit, as shown in the graph, practically no [ failed verification ] items will fail to meet specifications.

As process standard deviation goes up, or the mean of the process moves away from the center of the tolerance, fewer standard deviations will fit between the mean and the nearest specification limit, decreasing the sigma number and increasing the likelihood of items outside specification.

One should also note that calculation of Sigma levels for a process data is independent of the data being normally distributed. In one of the criticisms to Six Sigma, practitioners using this approach spend a lot of time transforming data from non-normal to normal using transformation techniques. It must be said that Sigma levels can be determined for process data that has evidence of non-normality.

Experience has shown that processes usually do not perform as well in the long term as they do in the short term. Hence the widely accepted definition of a six sigma process is a process that produces 3. This is based on the fact that a process that is normally distributed will have 3. The failure rate of a six sigma distribution with the mean shifted 1. The role of the sigma shift is mainly academic. The purpose of six sigma is to generate organizational performance improvement.

It is up to the organization to determine, based on customer expectations, what the appropriate sigma level of a process is. The purpose of the sigma value is as a comparative figure to determine whether a process is improving, deteriorating, stagnant or non-competitive with others in the same business. Six sigma 3. The table below gives long-term DPMO values corresponding to various short-term sigma levels. These figures assume that the process mean will shift by 1.

In other words, they assume that after the initial study determining the short-term sigma level, the long-term C pk value will turn out to be 0. So, now for example, the DPMO figure given for 1 sigma assumes that the long-term process mean will be 0.

Note that the defect percentages indicate only defects exceeding the specification limit to which the process mean is nearest. Defects beyond the far specification limit are not included in the percentages. Six Sigma mostly finds application in large organizations. The fact that an organization is not big enough to be able to afford black belts does not diminish its abilities to make improvements using this set of tools and techniques.

The infrastructure described as necessary to support Six Sigma is a result of the size of the organization rather than a requirement of Six Sigma itself. Although the scope of Six Sigma differs depending on where it is implemented, it can successfully deliver its benefits to different applications. After its first application at Motorola in the late s, other internationally recognized firms currently recorded high number of savings after applying Six Sigma.

On top of this, other organizations like Sony and Boeing achieved large percentages in waste reduction. There is still a need for an essential analysis that can control the factors affecting concrete cracks and slippage between concrete and steel. Six Sigma has played an important role by improving accuracy of allocation of cash to reduce bank charges, automatic payments, improving accuracy of reporting, reducing documentary credits defects, reducing check collection defects, and reducing variation in collector performance.

Two of the financial institutions that have reported considerable improvements in their operations are Bank of America and American Express. By Bank of America increased customer satisfaction by Similarly, American Express successfully eliminated non-received renewal credit cards and improved their overall processes by applying Six Sigma principles. This strategy is also currently being applied by other financial institutions like GE Capital Corp.

In this field, it is important to ensure that products are delivered to clients at the right time while preserving high-quality standards from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. By changing the schematic diagram for the supply chain, Six Sigma can ensure quality control on products defect free and guarantee delivery deadlines, which are the two major issues involved in the supply chain. This is a sector that has been highly matched with this doctrine for many years because of the nature of zero tolerance for mistakes and potential for reducing medical errors involved in healthcare.

Lean Six Sigma was applied in recent as at Stanford hospitals and Six Sigma was first introduced at Red Cross hospital in year with first wave of Green belt training. Quality expert Joseph M. Juran described Six Sigma as "a basic version of quality improvement", stating that "there is nothing new there.

It includes what we used to call facilitators. They've adopted more flamboyant terms, like belts with different colors. I think that concept has merit to set apart, to create specialists who can be very helpful.

Again, that's not a new idea. The American Society for Quality long ago established certificates, such as for reliability engineers. Quality expert Philip B. Crosby pointed out that the Six Sigma standard does not go far enough [29] —customers deserve defect-free products every time.

For example, under the Six Sigma standard, semiconductors which require the flawless etching of millions of tiny circuits onto a single chip are all defective. The use of "Black Belts" as itinerant change agents has fostered an industry of training and certification. Critics have argued there is overselling of Six Sigma by too great a number of consulting firms, many of which claim expertise in Six Sigma when they have only a rudimentary understanding of the tools and techniques involved or the markets or industries in which they are acting.

The statement was attributed to "an analysis by Charles Holland of consulting firm Qualpro which espouses a competing quality-improvement process ". A more direct criticism is the "rigid" nature of Six Sigma with its over-reliance on methods and tools. In most cases, more attention is paid to reducing variation and searching for any significant factors and less attention is paid to developing robustness in the first place which can altogether eliminate the need for reducing variation.

A possible consequence of Six Sigma's array of P-value misconceptions is the false belief that the probability of a conclusion being in error can be calculated from the data in a single experiment without reference to external evidence or the plausibility of the underlying mechanism.

Another comment refers to the often mentioned Transfer Function, which seems to be a flawed theory if looked at in detail. The volume of criticism and rebuttal has filled books with language seldom used in the scholarly debate of a dry subject. Articles featuring critics have appeared in the November—December issue of USA Army Logistician regarding Six-Sigma: "The dangers of a single paradigmatic orientation in this case, that of technical rationality can blind us to values associated with double-loop learning and the learning organization , organization adaptability , workforce creativity and development, humanizing the workplace, cultural awareness , and strategy making.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb considers risk managers little more than "blind users" of statistical tools and methods. Furthermore, errors in prediction are likely to occur as a result of ignorance for or distinction between epistemic and other uncertainties.

These errors are the biggest in time variant reliability related failures. According to an article by John Dodge, editor in chief of Design News , use of Six Sigma is inappropriate in a research environment. Dodge states [46] "excessive metrics, steps, measurements and Six Sigma's intense focus on reducing variability water down the discovery process.

Under Six Sigma, the free-wheeling nature of brainstorming and the serendipitous side of discovery is stifled. A BusinessWeek article says that James McNerney 's introduction of Six Sigma at 3M had the effect of stifling creativity and reports its removal from the research function. It cites two Wharton School professors who say that Six Sigma leads to incremental innovation at the expense of blue skies research.

One criticism voiced by Yasar Jarrar and Andy Neely from the Cranfield School of Management 's Centre for Business Performance is that while Six Sigma is a powerful approach, it can also unduly dominate an organization's culture; and they add that much of the Six Sigma literature — in a remarkable way six-sigma claims to be evidence, scientifically based — lacks academic rigor:.

So far, documented case studies using the Six Sigma methods are presented as the strongest evidence for its success. However, looking at these documented cases, and apart from a few that are detailed from the experience of leading organizations like GE and Motorola, most cases are not documented in a systemic or academic manner.

In fact, the majority are case studies illustrated on websites, and are, at best, sketchy.

Six Sigma Tools & Techniques

Tools and techniques : A comprehensive set of tools and analytical techniques that are used to identify and solve problems. Process and methodology : A series of phases that organize the use of the problem-solving tools to ensure that the true root causes are found and that a solution is fully implemented. Mindset and culture : A way of thinking that relies on data and processes to achieve operational performance goals and continuously improve. These three elements reinforce each other. Analytical techniques are not used effectively unless there is a process for applying them and a mindset of continuous improvement creating the need for them. An improvement process does not produce the desired results unless it includes the tools and techniques that define the activity of the process steps and there is a culture that insists on systemic data-based approach to solving problems.

The Six Sigma expert uses qualitative and quantitative techniques to drive process improvement. Key Skiills:. Many translated example sentences containing Six Sigma Tools — English-German dictionary the deployment of Six Sigma tool and techniques, means []. Sigma black belt handbook tools and methods for process acceleration by online. Antony, N.


Basic 6 Sigma Tools and Techniques. (Pages 7 to 12). • Lean Six Sigma (LSS). (​Page 13). • Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Tool. (Pages 14 to 22). • Lean Six Sigma.


Study of Tools, Techniques and Factors used in Lean Six Sigma

Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. By providing outstanding Six Sigma services relevant to your employers and clients! They communicate a success story of process improvement projects and highlight the project as an example of real world application of Lean Six Sigma tools.

It is shown that 7QC tools can be used in all process phases, from the beginning of a product development up to management of a production process and delivery. Terdapat tujuh alat utama yang disebut juga dengan seven quality control tools 7QC Tools terdiri dari: 1 Histogram, 2 Check sheet, 3 Pareto chart, 4 Cause and effect diagram, 5 Defect concentration diagram, 6 Scatter diagram, 7 Control chart. Written by Lincoln H. Forbes and Syed M.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Tech Published Engineering. Six Sigma was a technique developed in by Bill Smith of Motorola. Six Sigma is a business improvement methodology that increases profits and delivers value to customers by focusing on the reduction of variation and elimination of defects with the help of various statistical, data-based tools and techniques.

six sigma basic tools and techniques pdf

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The Six Sigma expert uses qualitative and quantitative techniques to drive process improvement. Although the tools themselves are not unique, the way they are applied and integrated as part of a system is. Some of the statistical and graphical tools commonly used in improvement projects are:. It is an integral part of a Six Sigma initiative, but can also be implemented as a standalone quality improvement procedure or as part of other process improvement initiatives such as lean.

It was introduced by American engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in A six sigma process is one in which Six Sigma strategies seek to improve the quality of the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing impact variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical , statistical methods , and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: 1.


Recently, Lean six sigma is a business improvement methodology, which combines tools and techniques from both lean manufacturing and six sigma, the result.