File Name: molecular markers types and application .zip
- DNA marker applications to molecular genetics and genomics in tomato
- An overview of molecular marker methods for plants
- Genetic marker
Received: January 01, Published: ,. Citation: DOI:. Download PDF.
DNA marker applications to molecular genetics and genomics in tomato
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism biological markers or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA , for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA genetic markers are used for diagnosing the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis ,  taxonomic affinity phylogenetics and identity DNA barcoding. Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA , into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species. It can be described as a variation which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci that can be observed. A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change single nucleotide polymorphism , SNP , or a long one, like minisatellites. For many years, gene mapping was limited to identifying organisms by traditional phenotype markers. This included genes that encoded easily observable characteristics such as blood types or seed shapes. The insufficient number of these types of characteristics in several organisms limited the mapping efforts that could be done.
An overview of molecular marker methods for plants
Plant Breeding from Laboratories to Fields. Molecular breeding MB may be defined in a broad-sense as the use of genetic manipulation performed at DNA molecular levels to improve characters of interest in plants and animals, including genetic engineering or gene manipulation, molecular marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, etc. More often, however, molecular breeding implies molecular marker-assisted breeding MAB and is defined as the application of molecular biotechnologies, specifically molecular markers, in combination with linkage maps and genomics, to alter and improve plant or animal traits on the basis of genotypic assays. In this article, we will address general principles and methodologies of marker-assisted breeding in plants and discuss some issues related to the procedures and applications of this methodology in practical breeding, including marker-assisted selection, marker-based backcrossing, marker-based pyramiding of multiple genes, etc. Genetic markers are the biological features that are determined by allelic forms of genes or genetic loci and can be transmitted from one generation to another, and thus they can be used as experimental probes or tags to keep track of an individual, a tissue, a cell, a nucleus, a chromosome or a gene. Genetic markers used in genetics and plant breeding can be classified into two categories: classical markers and DNA markers Xu,
Tomato is an important crop and regarded as an experimental model of the Solanaceae family and of fruiting plants in general. To enhance breeding efficiency and advance the field of genetics, tomato has been subjected to DNA marker studies as one of the earliest targets in plants. The developed DNA markers have been applied to the construction of genetic linkage maps and the resultant maps have contributed to quantitative trait locus QTL and gene mappings for agronomically important traits, as well as to comparative genomics of Solanaceae. The recently released whole genome sequences of tomato enable us to develop large numbers of DNA markers comparatively easily, and even promote new genotyping methods without DNA markers. In addition, databases for genomes, DNA markers, genetic linkage maps and other omics data, e.
AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Abstract The development and use of molecular markers for the detection and exploitation of DNA polymorphism is one of the most significant developments in the field of molecular genetics. The presence of various types of molecular markers, and differences in their principles, methodologies, and applications require careful consideration in choosing one or more of such methods.
Keywords: SNP, microsatellite, molecular marker, genome, polymorphism. Introduction. A genetic marker is a gene or DNA.
Forster, R. Ellis, W. Thomas, A. Newton, R.
Several characteristics of molecular markers make them useful to geneticists. First, because of the way DNA polymorphisms arise and are retained, they are frequent throughout the genome. Second, because they are phenotypically neutral, it is relatively easy to find markers that differ between two individuals. Third, their neutrality also makes it possible to study hundreds of loci without worrying about gene interactions or other influences that make it difficult to infer genotype from phenotype. Lastly, unlike visible traits such as eye color or petal color, the phenotype of a molecular marker can be detected in any tissue or developmental stage, and the same type of assay can be used to score molecular phenotypes at millions of different loci.
Molecular marker: Molecular marker is identified as genetic marker. Molecular marker is a DNA or gene sequence within a recognized location on a chromosome which is used as identification tool. In the pool of unknown DNA or in a whole chromosome, these molecular markers helps in identification of particular sequence of DNA at particular location. Applications: It plays a crucial role in gene mapping by identifying the position of linked genes in the chromosome which inherited together It also detect any alteration in a sequence of DNA or any genetic oddity. It ascertains genes involved in genetic disorders.
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