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Anxiety can be a crippling condition which leaves many of us feeling tired and hopeless. There is a fine line between depression and anxiety, and both conditions can have a major impact on our day to day lives.
- Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes
- Positive and Negative
- How Anxiety Affects Sports Performance
Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes
Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate.
However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers.
Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels.
It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. The popularity of youth sports continues to rise, with an estimated 45 million child and adolescent participants in the US.
Vague descriptions of age of participants, hours and structure of practice, and rules for competition vary between sports. According to physical, psychological, and cognitive development, a child should be at least 6 years of age before participating in organized team sport, such as soccer and baseball.
A mismatch in sports readiness and skill development can lead to anxiety, stress, and ultimately attrition for the young athlete. Implementation of some of the coaching tactics that were designed for college and professional athletes, such as hard physical practices for punishment, only the best get to play, running up the score, and overplaying celebratory wins has contributed to a negative atmosphere in youth sports. Although the state of affairs of youth sports in the US may be alarming, the alternative of a sedentary lifestyle and childhood obesity is a price we cannot afford.
Over the past three decades, the incidence of obesity in children has tripled, with one of every three children being affected. This imbalance of calories consumed and energy expenditure has contributed to an increased body mass index and obesity in our society. This paper examines the positive and negative aspects of youth sports in the US.
Controversial topics, such as early specialization, identification of elite players, influence of trained and untrained coaches, increasing injury rates, and moral issues of character and sportsmanship are discussed.
It is clearly apparent upon investigation of the strengths and weaknesses of youth sports that resolutions promoting a better, safer, and healthier future for all US children lies in partnership of involved adults, from parents, who lay the foundation of moral principles, to politicians, who support legislation and funding for positive sports initiatives. The perceived and objective benefits of participation in sports for children and adolescents are numerous and span multiple domains, including physical, physiological, and social development.
First and foremost, participation in sports fosters vigorous physical activity and energy expenditure. In addition to influencing physical health and warding off the negative consequences of obesity, youth participation in sports can also impact other high-risk health-related behaviors for boys and girls.
A study reported by Pate et al investigated the relationship between participation in sports and health-related behaviors in US youth. Both male and female athletes were more likely to eat fruit and vegetables, and less likely to engage in smoking and illicit drug-taking. The amount and type of risky behaviors engaged in by adolescent athletes and nonathletes have been shown to vary according to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Promoting exercise in young females is crucial because the majority of girls do not undertake the recommended level of daily physical activity. A reduction in suicidal thoughts and tendencies has been demonstrated for both teenage boys and girls who engage in sport. The influence of friendship and peer interactions cannot be underestimated for the female athlete.
Psychologic outcomes for community-based programs are successful if physical activity is combined with positive social constructs.
There is an inherent risk of injury for athletes of all ages when participating in sport. During periods of increased growth velocity and closure of the growth plates in adolescence, young athletes are vulnerable to a variety of traumatic and overuse injuries. Depending on the stage of physical growth, children and adolescents often injure anatomic structures that are different from those injured in adults.
During the adolescent years, some athletes may experience a decrease in flexibility, coordination, and balance, which not only increases the risk of injury, but also impacts sports performance, placing more stress, anxiety, and social pressure on the young athlete.
A hasty return to sport with incomplete rehabilitation can result in chronic pain, dysfunction, increased time away from sport, and repeated injury to the same or different body parts.
As participation in youth sports continues to rise, a direct impact on injury rates, medical costs, family burden, and time away from sport is observed. Accurate and comprehensive data on sporting injuries in the young athlete have been difficult to obtain because of inconsistent definitions of sports injury, under-reporting of injuries by parents and athletes, and lack of professional oversight in record-keeping. In addition to the physical consequences of injury, the psychosocial disturbances of mood swings, depression, and disconnection from the peer group are problematic and often require professional management.
Although not all injuries can be prevented, it appears that the youth sport culture is falling short in minimizing both traumatic and overuse injuries in children. Parents, coaches, sports medicine professionals, and organizers are all culpable. As with adult injuries, overuse injuries in the young athlete are the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic factors are those which are physiologic and often nonmodifiable, whereas extrinsic factors can be altered by outside influences. Adults involved in youth sports have an important role in influencing extrinsic factors, which can lead to injury reduction or exacerbation.
Injury reduction strategies are shown in Table 2. For instance, current research on heat-related illnesses encountered by young athletes shows that prevention strategies and education can play an important role in the reduction of this serious injury. The current literature identifies a number of causes, which include general state of health, dehydration, and environmental temperature and humidity as reasons for heat-related illness in the young athlete.
The report identifies differences in specific regulations on implementation of physical education between individual states. Over the last two decades, a notable rise in specialization has occurred in youth sports. More young athletes are choosing a single sport to participate in all year round at younger ages, with infrequent breaks and rest. This continued participation concentrated on one sport is believed to increase the risk of sport-related injuries, peer isolation, burnout, psychosocial problems, and attrition.
In addition to sports specialization impacting the young athlete, the financial burden impacting parents and the family is also significant. It is estimated that one in high school football players will play in the National Football League, and that only 2—3 in 10, high school basketball players will play for the National Basketball Association.
The above examples are the extreme costs of youth sports; however, even participation at a basic level for physical activity and fun can be a financial hardship for some families.
Basic costs include uniforms, equipment, league fees, travel expenses, and footwear. A decrease in governmental funding for youth after-school programs has limited accessibility and feasibility for sports participation in lower socioeconomic areas.
For children who do have access to organized sport, the majority of them being Caucasian from suburban neighborhoods, the influential role of the youth sports coach cannot be overestimated. The level of experience among youth coaches ranges from a volunteer parent, who perhaps has no experience with the sport, to paid coaches of elite teams.
Most coaches are untrained in the strengthening and conditioning principles necessary for the young athlete, emergency management of sports injuries, or in basic first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and automated external defibrillation, which results in an increase in the rate and severity of injuries for participants. The concept of educational requirements for coaches was met with resistance because the materials proposed were viewed as unreliable, ineffective, and lacking in comprehensiveness.
Some athletes also felt pressured to play while injured. Other reasons cited for sports attrition linked to coaching behavior included favoritism, poor teaching skills, and increased pressure to win, all of which created a negative atmosphere and decreased the fun of playing sport. Participation in sport is widely believed to improve moral character, sportsmanship, and ability to collaborate towards a common goal. However, these secondary gains in sports participation cannot be assumed and must be facilitated by positive role modeling on the part of parents and coaches.
Accordingly, facilitation of a negative sports environment by adults who are directly or indirectly involved in supervision of youth programs results in negative social behavior. Parents, in addition to coaches, can create high levels of stress and anxiety for the young athlete.
Problem parents who behave inappropriately by putting too much emphasis on winning, having impractical expectations, and criticizing or pampering their children are encountered frequently by high school coaches.
Combating sports-related injuries, high-pressure environments, and negative behavior on the part of both parents and coaches appears to be an initial viable intervention to mitigate problems in youth sport. Table 3 compares the positive and negative aspects of youth sports for young athletes and their families. Changing the future of youth sports for the better needs a collaborative effort between parents, coaches, teachers, health professionals, community leaders, and politicians.
As a society, we need to change the philosophy of youth sport from a negative environment to a positive one in which most children can thrive, benefit from, and sustain their participation in sport. Organized sports participation needs to be available to all youth, regardless of gender, neighborhood, or socioeconomic status.
Youth sports should emphasize fun, and maximize physical, psychological, and social development for its participants. Policies and guidelines which establish the framework for youth sports should be implemented based on scientific knowledge.
State and federal legislation can assist in improving safety in sport for young athletes by providing an appropriate framework for participation in youth sports. Proposed changes to improve youth sports are suggested in Table 4. Fostering programs that help to establish positive and healthy values for youth sports, such as the Institute for the Study of Youth Sports and Character Counts, is important.
A reference list of organizations promoting a positive youth sports environment is provided in Table 5. Implementation of a pre-participation physical evaluation PPE to assist in reducing injuries, athlete education, and identification of more serious health problems may be beneficial in keeping athletes safer while participating in sports. Currently, every state uses some type of PPE for school-based sports programs, but specific evaluation components are not standardized.
The National Federation of State High School Associations considers the PPE to be a prerequisite for participation in sport, but does not have the authority to mandate its implementation. Despite participation in vigorous sporting and recreational activities, the young athlete undergoes little if any physical examination except for wellness visits.
Medical societies endorsing the PPE guidelines acknowledge its limitations, but do agree that, when performed consistently by a qualified health practitioner, it is a valuable tool for identifying athletes at risk. Facilitation and encouragement of safe participation in sport is the goal of the PPE.
Sport provides a medium for physical activity, developing friendships, and learning developmental skills across all domains. The multiple health benefits for children of all ages who participate in vigorous physical activity are well documented. Organized youth sports, when focused on fundamentals, facilitate physical activity while providing enjoyment for the young athlete. Reducing sports attrition is necessary for sustaining sports participation and facilitating physical activity into adulthood.
The challenges faced by US adults who recognize the need to facilitate change in the youth sport culture are significant, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels.
It appears that an emphasis on having fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. Special thanks is also extended to Joe Molony for his expertise and technical assistance. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Open Access J Sports Med.
Published online May Donna L Merkel. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Keywords: youth sports, injuries, benefits, risks, prevention, specialization.
Introduction The popularity of youth sports continues to rise, with an estimated 45 million child and adolescent participants in the US. Table 1 Fundamentals of youth sports.
Positive and Negative
Even better, changing your attitude towards training and competition can significantly enhance motivation. Motivation is an internal energy force that determines all aspects of our behaviour; it also impacts on how we think, feel and interact with others. In sport, high motivation is widely accepted as an essential prerequisite in getting athletes to fulfil their potential. However, given its inherently abstract nature, it is a force that is often difficult to exploit fully. What is it that makes individuals like the year-old sprinter Merlene Ottey, who competed in her seventh Olympics in Athens , churn out outstanding performances year in, year out?
Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Hicks Published Psychology. This essay discusses the positive and negative effects of sports on the student athlete at the collegiate level. The focus of this level is going to be the club sport program with a minor focus on ice hockey. This focus on ice hockey will be shown through research. Throughout this essay, one can see that involvement in a college sport both positively and negatively affects the student athlete.
The effect of positive and negative mood on motivation to succeed of elite athletes. of the athletes involved in individual sports were higher than those involved in team sports. There was no statistically significant difference in the negative mood level of the participants. in terms of the type of sports (p>.
How Anxiety Affects Sports Performance
Positive motivation relies on continual self reinforcement and reinforcement by the coach, family, friends, spectators and media. These relationships can have a huge effect on how motivated an athlete is before a competition. To maintain high levels of positive motivation, coaches need to continually use positive motivation techniques. The following are a number of positive techniques a coach can use to motivate their athletes:.
The study used a cross-sectional design based on self-determination theory SDT. These results show the influence of the coach on the motivation and resilience of sportspeople. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Effects of anxiety on sports performance
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