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Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Material Science and Metallurgy is presented in a user-friendly language and the diagrams give a clear view and concept. Solved problems, multiple choice questions and review questions are also integral part of the book.
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This eBook may or may not include all assets that were part of the print version. The publisher reserves the right to remove any material present in this eBook at any time. Their blessings have made everything possible. This book is useful to undergraduate students as well. The book is divided into 21 chapters. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with deformation in materials under mechani- cal loading and consequently with the study of mechanical properties. The chapter on diffusion describes various diffusion processes in detail while chapters on phase diagrams and phase transformations deal with changes in phases with respect to temperature, that is eutectic, eutectoid and peritactic reactions.
Chapter 8 deals with various heat treatment processes such as annealing, tempering, normalizing and hardening which is useful for all mechanical engineers at all levels. There are chapters on metal alloys, organic materials, ceramic materials and composite materials relative to mechanical engineering field. The study of corrosion and wear of materials is useful for making selection of materials for use under various environmental and industrial conditions.
Electrical conducting, semi-conducting and insulating materials are also studied in brief as far as their utility in mechanical engineering applications is concerned. Magnetic and dielectric properties of the materials are also included in the book.
The chapters are self-contained. Each chapter ends with a detailed list of key points to remember, re- view questions, multiple choice questions to help students test their grasp of concepts and then proceed to solve practice problems. Every care has been taken by the publisher and me to weed out any typographical error or miscalcu- lation in numerical problems. However, I will be happy to receive feedback and suggestions. Thomson proposed the existence of an atom and found that electrons are constituents of all matter.
Now a days everybody realizes the existence of atoms, which are the building blocks of all the materials. Today, even an individual atom can be identified and photographed; through the light an atom emits. Atoms are stable and exist for billions of years without any change. They can combine together to form solids and can interact with other atoms to make compounds.
Atoms can also emit or absorb light. In an atom, there is a nucleus containing protons positively charged particles and neutrons without any charge surrounded by electrons negatively charged fine particles moving in orbits. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons to balance the charge. Neutrons are slightly heavier than protons, i. The diameter of the nucleus is extremely small and it is of the size of of an atom.
The atomic number is the number of electrons or protons in an atom. The mass number of an atom is equal to the sum of the number of protons plus neutrons. Following are a few examples of isotopes: 1. Hydrogen exists in three isotopic forms as hydrogen atomic weight 1 , deuterium atomic weight 2 and tritium atomic weight 3. All the three isotopes of hydrogen contain one proton and one electron, but different number of neutrons. Chlorine has two isotopes with atomic weights 35 and 37, i.
Cl35, Cl37 present in the ratio of The atomic weight of argon is It is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms making one molecule of an element. This chapter discusses the atomic models structure of an atom comprising electrons, protons and neutrons , electron configurations and periodic table. Thomson in and he concluded that electron is a constitu- ent of all matter.
Thomson clearly identified the electron of mass 9. His proof on existence of electrons became an essential pre-requisite for the subsequent models on structure of atoms, each model removing the anomalies of previous mod- els. In chronological order, the following atomic models were developed. Thomson model 2. Bohr atomic model 4. Sommerfeld—Wilson atomic model 5.
Vector model or modern model These models will be discussed in detail one by one. Using spectroscopy, he computed the total number of electrons in an atom.
By using different materials for the filament wire, he found that the same value is always obtained for charge to mass ratio, i. However, the atomic model presented by Thomson could not explain spectral series of hydrogen atom. Figure 1. However, the most important achievement of Thomson was the identification of electrons present in the matter along with mass of each electron and negative charge in Coulombs of each electron. He sug- gested that the nucleus of an atom is very small compared to the size of the atom.
The positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus. The electrons are moving at high speed in orbits and attain the centrifugal force. However, if an electron moves in a circular orbit of radius r, with a constant linear velocity v, then it is subjected to two forces: one acting inwards centripetal force and the other acting outwards cen- trifugal force. Short comings of Rutherford Model The electrons move in the Coulomb field of nucleus, in space like a planetary motion.
An electron mov- ing in a curved path is accelerating, but the accelerating charged particles radiate electromagnetic waves and lose energy. Therefore, Rutherford model defies the laws of classical mechanics and the nuclear atomic model suggested by Rutherford is defective. In case of hydrogen, Bohr pro- posed that the nucleus contains one proton and one electron revolving round the nucleus. More than one energy level is possible for any electron of the atom. No electron radiates energy as long as it remains in one of the orbital energy states.
Radiation takes place when one electron goes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state. So light is not emitted from an electron when it is moving in one of its fixed orbits, but only when it jumps from one orbit to another.
This pos- tulate prevents the electron from spiralling towards the nucleus or going away from it to escape. The assumption that the electrons make only circular orbits is arbitrary. The systems cannot be generalized with two or more electrons. There is no method to calculate the rate of transition between different energy levels. The model is unable to handle unbound systems.
The nucleus is times heavier than an electron, therefore, it can be assumed to be at rest. Moreover, from Eq. Energy, 9. Example 1. What is the radius of the second orbit in a singly ionized helium atom? Solution: Frequency, 9.
Exercise 1. What is the a energy of the photon emitted, b frequency of photon and c wave length of photons? As a result of Sommerfeld theory, an electron of hydrogen can move to any one of the orbits, i. The second quantum numbers are designated as shown in Table 1. All orbits with the same value of n principal quantum number have the same total energy. Each of the allowed orbits of this model of an atom becomes a subshell into which electrons are added to build the elements of the periodic table.
All the quantized principal terms are represented by vectors. New model takes into account the electron spin, at the same time retaining the Sommerfeld feature of planetary momentum of electrons in different orbits circular as well as elliptical. In the new model, two new quantum numbers, the magnetic spin quantum number ms and the magnetic orbital quantum number ml along with the principal quantum number n and the orbital or azimuthal quantum number l can be used to specify the state of electrons Table 1.
As per quantum mechanics, electrons have the properties of particles and are similar to those of energy waves. Electronic configuration of an atom is defined by the quantum numbers.
The quantum numbers and electron configurations are used in various ways in engineering materials. For example, the elec- tron configuration of carbon atom determines the molecular bonding characteristics in the case of polymers. Some general rules about electronic configuration of atoms are listed as follows: 1.
Electrons associated with an atom occupy orbitals and subshells with orbitals. The exact location of electrons in orbitals are defined by four quantum numbers that refer to the a energy of the electron principal quantum number , b shape of an orbital angular momentum quantum number , c orientation of an orbital magnetic quantum number , and d spin of an electron spin quantum number.
No two electrons can have same four quantum numbers, i. When two electrons reside in the same orbitals, their spins must be paired. When two atoms interact to form a compound, the electrons move into the unoccupied orbitals rather than moving into the partially occupied orbitals. The outermost or valence electrons largely determine the chemical behaviour of the elements.
Table 1. Elements, symbol, atomic number 2. Principal quantum numbers, n 3. Number of electrons in subshells s, p, d, f 4. Electron configurations in principal orbits and subshells s, p, d, f. These elements are arranged by increasing atomic number. Elements arranged in a given column or group have similar valence electron structure.
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This book follows a simple approach along with numerous solved and unsolved problems to explain the basics followed by advanced concepts such as three dimensional stresses, the theory of simple bending, theories of failure, mechanical properties, material testing and engineering materials. The book comprises chapters on simple stresses and strains, elastic constants, deflection of beams, theories of failure, strain energy methods, bending of curved bars, and mechanical properties. In addition, the book consists of chapterwise exercises to help understand the concepts better. Jindal Free? You all must have this kind of questions in your mind. Below article will solve this puzzle of yours. Just take a look.
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