File Name: steel microstructure and properties .zip
- Steels: Microstructure and Properties
- Carbon Steel: Properties, Production, Examples and Applications
- Dual-phase steel
Welded high-strength steel components have great potential for use in lightweight constructions or highly loaded structures.
Steels: Microstructure and Properties
The maximum manganese, silicon and copper content should be less than 1. Carbon steel can be classified into three categories according to its carbon content: low-carbon steel or mild-carbon steel , medium-carbon steel and high-carbon steel . Their carbon content, microstructure and properties compare as follows:. Low-carbon steel is the most widely used form of carbon steel. These steels usually have a carbon content of less than 0. They cannot be hardened by heat treatment to form martensite so this is usually achieved by cold work.
Carbon steels are usually relatively soft and have low strength. They do, however, have high ductility, making them excellent for machining, welding and low cost. High-strength, low-alloy steels HSLA are also often classified as low-carbon steels, however, also contain other elements such as copper , nickel, vanadium and molybdenum.
Combined, these comprise up to 10 wt. High-strength, low-alloy steels, as the name suggests, have higher strengths, which is achieved by heat treatment. They also retain ductility, making them easily formable and machinable. HSLA are more resistant to corrosion than plain low-carbon steels. Medium-carbon steel has a carbon content of 0. The mechanical properties of this steel are improved via heat treatment involving autenitising followed by quenching and tempering, giving them a martensitic microstructure.
Heat treatment can only be performed on very thin sections, however, additional alloying elements, such as chromium, molybdenum and nickel, can be added to improve the steels ability to be heat treated and, thus, hardened. Hardened medium-carbon steels have greater strength than low-carbon steels, however, this comes at the expense of ductility and toughness. High-carbon steel has a carbon content of 0. It has the highest hardness and toughness of the carbon steels and the lowest ductility.
High-carbon steels are very wear-resistant as a result of the fact that they are almost always hardened and tempered. Tool steels and die steels are types of high-carbon steels, which contain additional alloying elements including chromium, vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten. The addition of these elements results in the very hard wear-resistant steel, which is a result of the formation of carbide compounds such as tungsten carbide WC.
The molten iron extracted from the iron ore is enriched with carbon from the burning coke. The remaining impurities combine with the lime to form slag, which floats on top of the molten metal where it can be extracted.
The resulting molten steel contains roughly 4 wt. This carbon content is then reduced to the desired amount in a process called decarburisation. This is achieved by passing oxygen through the melt, which oxidises the carbon in the steel, producing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Low carbon steels are often used in automobile body components, structural shapes I-beams, channel and angle iron , pipes, construction and bridge components, and food cans.
As a result of their high strength, resistance to wear and toughness, medium-carbon steels are often used for railway tracks, train wheels, crankshafts, and gears and machinery parts requiring this combination of properties. Due to their high wear-resistance and hardness, high-carbon steels are used in cutting tools, springs high strength wire and dies.
Examples, properties, and applications of the various carbon steels are compared in the following table. Carbon steel, or plain-carbon steel, is a metal alloy.
It is a combination of two elements, iron and carbon. It is separated into three main subcategories - high carbon steel, medium carbon steel, and low carbon steel. We connect engineers, product designers and procurement teams with the best materials and suppliers for their job.
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Medium-carbon steel Medium-carbon steel has a carbon content of 0. High-carbon steel High-carbon steel has a carbon content of 0.
Production and processing Carbon steel can be produced from recycled steel, virgin steel or a combination of both. Medium-carbon steel As a result of their high strength, resistance to wear and toughness, medium-carbon steels are often used for railway tracks, train wheels, crankshafts, and gears and machinery parts requiring this combination of properties.
High-carbon steel Due to their high wear-resistance and hardness, high-carbon steels are used in cutting tools, springs high strength wire and dies. Comparison of properties and applications of different grades Examples, properties, and applications of the various carbon steels are compared in the following table. High 0. Carbon steel cold rolled sheet. Carbon steel globe valve. Carbon steel gate valve. Callister, Jr. Wiley, Quick Fact Carbon steel, or plain-carbon steel, is a metal alloy.
Carbon Steel: Properties, Production, Examples and Applications
The book provides inspiring content for undergraduates, yet has a depth that makes it useful to researchers. Steels represent the most used metallic material, possessing a wide range of structures and properties. The new edition has been thoroughly updated, with expanded content and improved organization, yet it retains its clear writing style, extensive bibliographies, and real-life examples. You all must have this kind of questions in your mind. Below article will solve this puzzle of yours. Just take a look.
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